Category Archives: Exhibitions

Shedding light on the matter of rubbish

In the latest of our blog series linked to The Rubbish Collection, the Science Museum’s Inventor in Residence Mark Champkins finds an ingenious use for our discarded materials.

The second phase of The Rubbish Collection exhibition is open at the Museum until 14 September. Having documented every piece of waste that passed through the Museum for a month, this second phase is a chance to see what would have been thrown away.

Of the material that hasn’t been selected for display, I collected a small box of bits that I hoped to turn into a product that we might sell in the shop. I like the idea that with a little bit of effort and imagination, items that would otherwise be chucked, can be turned into something desirable. Unfortunately the collection of items in the box that I had gathered didn’t look at all desirable. A couple of umbrellas, some bits from a light fitting, an old copper funnel, an ash tray, some plastic cutlery, some glass cups and a selection of ball bearings didn’t look very promising.

A box of bits © Mark Champkins

A box of bits © Mark Champkins

The germ of my idea came from digging out the copper funnel and investigating it further. It was heavily corroded and covered in green verdigris, but underneath was structurally solid, and a beautiful shape.

I read somewhere that vinegar could be used to clean copper, so I popped down to the café, to get a couple of sachets to try out. It turns out it does a reasonable job on lightly tarnished areas, but can’t handle the extent of corrosion on the funnel. However, it did encourage me that the funnel could be saved.

An old copper funnel © Mark Champkins

An old copper funnel © Mark Champkins

Next I pulled apart the umbrellas, lined up everything from the box and had a think what I might make. A happy coincidence was that the handle from the umbrella fitted exactly into the top of the funnel.

 

An umbrella handle © Mark Champkins

An umbrella handle © Mark Champkins

My first thought was to make some sort of loudspeaker people could shout through. Next, I thought the umbrella handle might plug the funnel to make a water-tight vase or container of some sort. Finally, looking at the shining clean patch of copper I thought, coupled with a 1950s-style squirrel cage bulb, it might make a really nice light fitting.

The next step was to recondition the copper funnel. In the basement, the Museum has metal and wood workshops responsible for building, installing and maintaining the structures for new exhibitions. Amongst their equipment is a sandblasting machine, which I used to blast the corrosion from the funnel.

Sandblasting the copper funnel © Mark Champkins

Sandblasting the copper funnel © Mark Champkins

I decided to leave the matt finish left from the sand blasting on the inside surface, and polish up the outside. Using Brasso and eventually a buffing wheel I polished up the outer surface.

Polishing © Mark Champkins

Polishing © Mark Champkins

Using a buffing wheel © Mark Champkins

Using a buffing wheel © Mark Champkins

To ensure the lamp remains pristine, I decided to use a polymer based lacquer, applied in the workshop’s spray booth.

In the spray booth © Mark Champkins

Finally I added the umbrella handle, and a lighting flex and fitting. I think the finished light looks rather good. It’ll be available for purchase in the Museum shop from mid August.

The finished light © Mark Champkins

The finished light © Mark Champkins

The lamp made from Museum rubbish © Mark Champkins

The lamp made from Museum rubbish © Mark Champkins

The finished lamp at work © Mark Champkins

The finished lamp at work © Mark Champkins

The light will be on sale in the Museum shop in mid-August © Mark Champkins

The light will be on sale in the Museum shop in mid-August © Mark Champkins

Phase 2 of Joshua Sofaer’s The Rubbish Collection runs at the Science Museum until 14 September 2014.

The Historic Heart of our Information Age Gallery

Dan Green, Content Developer, reflects on the incredible story of the Rugby Tuning Coil, one of the star objects of the Science Museum’s brand new Information Age gallery which opens in October.

The aerial inductance coil from Rugby Radio Station will soon have a new home at the Science Museum – see it being installed in the video below.

Measuring 6 metres high and resembling a series of giant spiders’ webs, this monumental coil is a powerful reminder of the invisible infrastructure which supports our desire to communicate.

Based at Rugby Radio Station, where it was housed in a huge cathedral-like room, the coil played a vital role in tuning a huge radio transmitter that sent out very low frequency signals. It was part of a huge system that linked the transmitter to the aerial masts, enabling messages to be sent and telegrams to be transmitted. During its long life, Rugby Radio held a huge personal resonance for many individuals, connecting people to each other, to the world and to home.

The enormous Rugby Tuning Coil being installed inside the Information Age gallery. Image credits: Science Museum

The enormous Rugby Tuning Coil being installed inside the Information Age gallery. Image credits: Science Museum

Rugby Radio Station began transmitting very low frequency signals on 1 January 1926 using the call sign GBR. Once the world’s most powerful radio transmitter, its very low frequency waves could follow the curvature of the Earth to travel very long distances, enabling one-way communication to Britain’s Empire. It transmitted wireless telegraph messages from the British Foreign Office, standard time signals from Greenwich, news bulletins, personal telegrams and Christmas greetings.

Although first hailed as a matter of national pride, in later years Rugby Radio Station was a hidden secret that played an important role in the Cold War, as its very low frequency signals could be picked up by submarines.

Archive image of the Rugby Tuning Coil. Image credits: Cable & Wireless Communications 2014.  By kind permission of the Telegraph Museum Porthcurno.

Archive image of the Rugby Tuning Coil. Image credits: Cable & Wireless Communications 2014. By kind permission of the Telegraph Museum Porthcurno.

Godfery Dykes, one of many submarine communication operators, sat in a claustrophobic communications cabin, hunched over the radio, headphones on, sick bucket between his legs, receiving the Morse code signals. His role was to write down in pencil the dots and dashes coming through at the incredible speed of 30 words a minute, a rate that was undecipherable to the untrained ear. The dots and dashes would then be decoded and the messages delivered:

‘GBR meant a lot to us and we used the letters GBR in many ways. At the start of our patrol I used to think Goodbye BeRyl (my wife) …simply to hear Rugby’s call sign meant to me all those I loved back in the UK were still safe. I well remember moments of excitement on coming shallow to periscope depth after many hours down deep, watching the depth gauge creep slowly past 150 feet, 125, feet, 100 feet and then 75 feet, faint at first, that most lovely sound started to fill my ears – God Bless Rugby, GBR’

On 31 March 2003, 77 years after it transmitted its first Morse message, Rugby Radio station ceased broadcasting its very low frequency signals around the world. A year later, the twelve 250m high masts that radiated out Rugby’s signals were demolished, marking the end of an era. Former station manager Malcolm Hancock was invited to detonate the first explosion:

 “They had been there for so long and the red lights (on top of the masts) had always been there whenever you came home. That is what all the local people in Rugby say, ‘Oh yeah, the thing we’re going to miss is not seeing the red lights saying – oh we’re nearly home now’”.

The coil was donated to the Science Museum by BT Heritage and Archives soon after the decommissioning of Rugby Radio Station. From 25 October, you can see the Rugby Tuning Coil displayed in public for the first time at the centre of the Information Age gallery, as reflected in this artist’s impression.

An artist's impression of the Information Age gallery. Image credits: Science Museum / Universal Design Studio

An artist’s impression of the Information Age gallery. Image credits: Science Museum / Universal Design Studio

To discover more visit sciencemuseum.org.uk/informationage or follow the conversation online via #smInfoAge

An Antarctic Expedition

Assistant Curator Sarah Harvey looks back at Sir Ernest Shackleton’s Antarctic expedition, which launched a century ago today.  

On this day (8 August) 100 years ago, a ship called the Endurance set sail from Plymouth, bound for Antarctica. The ship carried Sir Ernest Shackleton’s Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, the goal of which was to make the first transcontinental crossing of Antarctica through the South Pole, from the Weddell Sea to the Ross Sea.

HMS Endurance trapped in the ice during Shackleton's 1914-16 Antarctic expedition © BFI National Archive

HMS Endurance trapped in the ice during Shackleton’s 1914-16 Antarctic expedition © BFI National Archive

The expedition failed when Endurance became trapped in pack ice and, after 9 months, was eventually crushed and sank, stranding Shackleton and the crew on the ice. Despite this failure the trip became famous as an epic feat of endurance, as Shackleton and his crew made a desperate and heroic bid for escape in three tiny boats, crossing the Southern Ocean to the island of South Georgia. Sadly, three lives were still lost: Victor Hayward, Aeneas Mackintosh and the Rev. Arnold Spencer-Smith from the Endurance’s supply ship the Aurora.

Two medicine chests, belonging to polar explorer Ernest Shackleton, (1871-1922) and Captain Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912).

Two medicine chests, belonging to polar explorer Ernest Shackleton, (1871-1922) and Captain Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912). Credit: Science Museum.

It was the last great expedition of what is known as the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, and for 100 years has provided inspiration for both explorers and artists alike, including author Tony White whose thought provoking and innovative latest novel, Shackleton’s Man Goes South, is the first novel ever to be published by the Science Museum. More information about Shackleton’s expedition and the novel, which is available as a free e-book until April 2015, can be found in the Science Museum’s Atmosphere gallery.

Drawing on tales of adventure from the past and cutting-edge new scientific research into the effects of climate change, White imagines a terrifying future where people are fleeing to Antarctica, instead of escaping from it; in a hot world instead of a cold one.

The author says that he became fascinated not only by Shackleton’s amazing feat of heroism, but the way that the story has been told. “I wondered what new resonances those early tales — and moving images — of Antarctica a century ago might have now when that great continent’s ice sheets are at risk because of climate change, and what kind of Shackleton myth might inspire future generations of migrants to Antarctica. Migration is being seen as a form of adaptation to climate change, and the novel suggests that climate change refugees, setting out in tiny boats on equally desperate and epic voyages, might be the Ernest Shackletons of our day.”

There are zeppelins over South Kensington and boat people in the South Atlantic. Among them are Emily and daughter Jenny, travelling south to safety and a reunion with John who has gone ahead to find work. They travel with Browning, a sailor who has already saved their lives more than once. In the slang of their post-melt world, Emily and Jenny are refugees known as ‘mangoes,’ a corruption of the saying ‘man go south’.

To find out more about the inspiration behind Shackleton’s Man Goes South and download the e-book click here or visit the Science Museum’s Atmosphere gallery.

Transforming materials – the recycling journey

In this week’s blog linked to The Rubbish Collection Curator Sarah Harvey follows the route of the Science Museum’s recycled rubbish.

Joshua Sofaer’s art installation The Rubbish Collection showcases the sometimes surprising materials that are created from the everyday rubbish produced by staff, contractors and visitors at the Science Museum. After documenting all the Museum’s waste for 30 days we have traced where it goes, and how it is recycled and transformed from rubbish back into valuable materials.

Grundon Materials Recovery Facility, Colnbrook © Science Museum

Grundon Materials Recovery Facility, Colnbrook © Science Museum

For recyclable rubbish put into the Museum’s recycling bins the first port of call in the journey is the Grundon Material Recovery Facility (MRF) at Colnbrook near Heathrow. Here it is separated out into several different recycling streams. First magnets remove the ferrous metals (like steel cans) and non-ferrous metals (such as aluminium cans) then sophisticated infra-red technology identifies and separates the remaining rubbish into paper, card, glass and several different types of plastics. Any rubbish that cannot be recycled, or pieces too small to be captured, are taken to the Lakeside Energy from Waste plant for incineration, so no rubbish goes to landfill. At the end of the sorting process the materials are baled as raw materials for resale to companies who take on the next stage of processing.

Artist Joshua Sofaer and Curator Sarah Harvey at Grundon Waste Management Facility, Colnbrook © Science Museum

Artist Joshua Sofaer and Curator Sarah Harvey at Grundon Waste Management Facility, Colnbrook © Science Museum

For each material the recycling and recovery processes are necessarily very different, but it was interesting to find that there is always a loss of some material which cannot be recovered or usefully reused. For the plastics and the glass that loss comes from paper labels and glues that are soaked off in the washing process, forming an unpleasant sticky mulch which gets sent for incineration. Even for the steel and aluminium cans which can be endlessly recycled, there is still some loss from the paints and pigments used in printing their branded logos and decoration.

Aluminium cans at Grundon Waste Management Facility, Colnbrook © Science Museum

Aluminium cans at Grundon Waste Management Facility, Colnbrook © Science Museum

As processes improve and new technology is developed, hopefully one day these materials will either be captured for future use, or the waste will be designed out altogether. The model for keeping 100% of the materials in circulation is known as the circular economy. Sometimes only a small change is needed. In the exhibition we have the plastic label and mixed flake that is retained from PET plastic recycling. By using plastic labels instead of paper the material can be more easily collected and recycled to make new products like plastic bags.

PET plastic flakes in The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

PET plastic flakes in The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

There is lots of information on the web about the processing of different materials. Some of the online resources I have found most helpful during this project are:

Glass
Aluminium
Steel
PET plastics
HDPE plastics

Phase 2 of Joshua Sofaer’s The Rubbish Collection is now open at the Science Museum and runs until 14 September 2014.

Rubbish that powers homes and builds roads

In this week’s blog linked to The Rubbish Collection, Curator Sarah Harvey looks at some of the materials that are on display in the exhibition.

The second phase of Joshua Sofaer’s The Rubbish Collection art installation has involved tracing the journeys of the Science Museum’s rubbish, to find out where it goes, and how it is processed. This has enabled us to work out what materials to bring back for display, and in what quantities, to represent 30 days’ worth of Science Museum waste.

A giant claw lifting general waste into the incinerator at the Energy from Waste plant © Science Museum

A giant claw lifting general waste into the incinerator at the Energy from Waste plant © Science Museum

Rubbish leaves the museum via a variety of different companies but the vast majority is taken by Grundon Waste Management. It goes to their site at Colnbrook, near Heathrow, which holds three centres; a transfer station, a Materials Recovery Facility and the Lakeside Energy from waste plant, co-owned by Viridor Waste Management.

The interior of the Lakeside Energy from Waste plant © Science Museum

The interior of the Lakeside Energy from Waste plant © Science Museum

Today I’m going to focus on the materials on display from the Energy from Waste plant. When you think of an incinerator that burns rubbish you might picture a dirty, sooty, very smelly and unpleasant place, but it’s actually an extraordinary, almost clinically clean building (except for the container where the rubbish is held), and it’s surprisingly beautiful with a giant claw grabbing up to six tonnes of rubbish at a time to feed the incinerator fires.

Inside the incinerator at the Lakeside Energy from Waste plant © Science Museum

Inside the incinerator at the Lakeside Energy from Waste plant © Science Museum

All the Science Museum general (non-recycled) waste goes to Lakeside to be incinerated. Four products come out of that process: energy, incinerator bottom ash, air pollution control residue and clean air. The largest output is energy, with the plant providing enough to power 50,000 homes per year. We have calculated that the energy produced by incinerating one month of Science Museum waste is enough to light one of our gallery bulbs for nearly 24 years.

Bottom ash aggregate and recyclable metal as it comes out of the Energy from Waste plant © Science Museum

Bottom ash aggregate and recyclable metal as it comes out of the Energy from Waste plant © Science Museum

The energy is produced by burning the rubbish for approximately 3 seconds at 950 degrees centigrade, which is long enough to combust most materials. At the end of the process, incinerator bottom ash is left over. This ash still contains large pieces of metal which are separated and sent to be recycled, and the ash itself is left to ‘mature’ so that chemical reactions can take place that lower its pH value. This aggregate is then used in the construction industry, primarily in road building. You could be driving on your old rubbish.

Bottom ash aggregate (left) on display in Phase 2 of The Rubbish Collection © Katherine Leedale

Bottom ash aggregate (left) on display in Phase 2 of The Rubbish Collection © Katherine Leedale

One of the most remarkable things about the incineration process is that the air that comes out of the plant is actually cleaner than the air that goes in. This is because it is very carefully filtered to contain the toxins released during burning. The filtered ash is known as air pollution control residue (APCr). Historically this toxic ash would have been contained in hazardous waste landfill, but new technologies and research are now finding uses for it. Grundon have invested in a company called Carbon8 who use carbon dioxide to neutralise the toxic heavy metals and materials, making them permanently non-hazardous. This safe ash can then be used as an aggregate and, alongside other recycled materials including wood, makes the ‘Carbon Buster’ carbon-neutral breeze blocks we have on display in The Rubbish Collection.

Carbon Buster breeze blocks in Phase 2 of The Rubbish Collection © Katherine Leedale

‘Carbon Buster’ breeze blocks in Phase 2 of The Rubbish Collection © Katherine Leedale

It’s been very encouraging to find that the Science Museum rubbish is producing some useful and valuable products through incineration. However, one of the big findings from our documentation of the Museum’s waste was that there is still a lot of recyclable material ending up at the incinerator. Those materials retain much more value when they are recycled so by continuing to improve and refine our recycling systems, and through new initiatives like separating our food waste, we hope in the future to decrease our general waste further.

Phase 2 of Joshua Sofaer’s The Rubbish Collection is now open at the Science Museum and runs until 14 September 2014.

Modern art is Rubbish

In the latest of our series of blogs linked to The Rubbish Collection Science Museum Inventor-in-Residence Mark Champkins looks back at Phase 1, while Project Curator Sarah Harvey gives us a sneak preview of Phase 2 before it opens on 25 July.

Phase 1 – Mark Champkins, Science Museum Inventor-in-Residence

Tuesday 15 July was the last day of sorting through Museum waste for The Rubbish Collection project, and my last chance to put in a shift filtering through discarded drinks bottles and leftover lunches.

The project is fascinating. It aims to examine what constitutes the waste that passes through the Museum, where it would normally go, and what might be usefully recycled.

The exhibition is split into two parts. The first involves the collection of every piece of waste generated by the Museum over a month. A team of volunteers has been sorting and photographing the contents of the Museum’s rubbish bags, and pulling out items of particular interest. The second part will start on 25 July, and will be an exhibition of cleaned and collated rubbish materials.

The Rubbish Collection Phase 1 © Science Museum

The Rubbish Collection Phase 1 © Science Museum

As I began my shift, what struck me first was the smell of the gallery. It’s a sweet, fruity smell, not unlike over-ripe apples. It comes from the vast amount of sugary drinks and half eaten fruit thrown into the bins, the likely source being the hundreds of packed lunches eaten in the Museum every day. Throughout the Museum, the usual bins have been replaced with ‘General Waste’ and ‘Recycling’ bins. It soon became clear to me that in order to avoid the worst of the smell, the bags to pick out to sort through are the ones marked ‘Recycling’. This avoids the majority of the decomposing foodstuffs.

The task is to open up the bags, lay out the contents on a large white table, sort the contents as you see fit, and then snap a photo of the arranged items on an overhead camera. The opportunity to arrange the rubbish in whatever way you want has brought out the creativity of the volunteers. To this end, within a few days, a tumblr account was opened to show off some of the most imaginative of the layouts. Amongst my favourites are the seascape, composed of blue plastic bags and fruit, and blazing sun in the sky, made from bread sticks, paper towels and what looks like parsley. You can have a look here.

Rubbish of the Day, day 27 © Science Museum

Rubbish of the Day, day 27 © Science Museum

After half a dozen bags, a disheartening pattern starts to emerge. Much of what is being thrown away is perfectly good. Lots of the food is unopened or untouched. Leaflets and flyers are almost always pristine. It’s as though the bins are being used to de-clutter, rather than being a place to put things when they have reached the end of their useful lives. It seems inexplicable how many of the items have ended up in the bins. Three wheelchairs have been collected, over a dozen shoes, two fridges, a bra and a giant toothbrush.

Spurred by the some of the weird and wonderful items collected I have set myself a challenge. Like a Science Museum Womble, I aim to filter through the items left behind to put together some items that can be repurposed and redesigned to make a one-off product, that we can sell in the Museum shop. Watch this space…

Some of the materials for Phase 2 of The Rubbish Collection

Some of the materials for Phase 2 of The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

Phase 2 – Sarah Harvey, Project Curator, The Rubbish Collection

After 30 frenzied days of documenting all the Science Museum waste, you might have expected artist Joshua Sofaer to take a well-earned break. No such luck. Since the documentation finished on 15 July, The Rubbish Collection has remained a hive of activity and an almost miraculous transformation has taken place. Gone are the sorting tables, bin bags and faint whiff of old packed lunch; in their place Joshua has created an intriguing and magical exhibition showcasing 30 days of Science Museum rubbish.

The exhibition is comprised of some of the bizarre and surprising items that were retained from the bins in the documentation phase of the project, displayed alongside almost 18 tonnes of materials processed and recycled from the Science Museum rubbish. Both the scale and the beauty of these materials and objects is quite unexpected, and I don’t want to ruin the surprise, so I’m just going to give you some teaser images (below). The exhibition opens to the public at 11am on Friday 25 July, so please come down and experience the wonder of ‘rubbish’ for yourself.

Material for Phase 2 © Science Museum

Material for Phase 2 © Science Museum

Material for Phase 2 © Science Museum

Material for Phase 2 © Science Museum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Material for Phase 2 © Science Museum

Material for Phase 2 © Science Museum

Material for Phase 2 © Science Museum

Material for Phase 2 © Science Museum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phase 2 of Joshua Sofaer’s The Rubbish Collection opens at the Science Museum on 25 July and runs until 14 September 2014.

#UnlockingLovelock Twitter Tour

Update: You can see the full #UnlockingLovelock tour below

Are you a fan of maverick scientist James Lovelock? To celebrate Lovelock’s 95th birthday, curator Alex Johnson conducted a live Twitter tour of our Unlocking Lovelock exhibition on Friday 25 July.

During the tour of the exhibition, Alex shared the objects, letters, notes and drawings that reveal Lovelock’s extraordinary life and scientific career through the Science Museum’s Twitter account (@sciencemuseum) using the hashtag #UnlockingLovelock.

Unlocking Lovelock: Scientist, Inventor, Maverick is a free exhibition open at the Science Museum until 9 April 2015. You can find out more via sciencemuseum.org.uk/lovelock.

281,647 visitors: a ‘rubbish’ story

In the next in our series of blogs about The Rubbish Collection, Project Curator Sarah Harvey looks back at what we have collected and reflects on what Phase 1 of the exhibition has taught us about our relationship with waste.

Thirty days of sorting and documenting all the Science Museum‘s rubbish have come to a close. It’s been surprising, sometimes shocking and certainly thought-provoking, fun, hard work and, at times, a little bit smelly!

We’ve documented all the rubbish produced by the Museum’s 281,647 visitors, 500+ staff and contractors, five cafés, two building sites, three shops, two Science Nights, one Lates event and several storage cupboard clearances. We’re still waiting to see the figures but, it’s safe to say, it was a lot of rubbish.

Two pairs of shoes appear in Phase 1 of The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

Two pairs of shoes appear in Phase 1 of The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

Over the thirty days, artist Joshua Sofaer, his assistants and the Science Museum volunteers, along with hundreds of brave visitors eager to take up this unique opportunity to get up-close and personal with the trash, have rummaged tirelessly through approximately 250 bags of rubbish per day.

Along with the expected items like crisp packets, drinks cans and the remains of thousands of kids’ lunch boxes, we’ve also found some more unexpected objects hidden amongst the detritus of everyday Museum life. 16.5 pairs of shoes, two two-piece suits, a bra, three fridges, one dishwasher, a box of old floppy disks (visiting school children didn’t know what they were), piles of discarded over-the-counter medicines, three wheelchairs and a staggering volume of disposable cutlery.

Uneaten fruit in Phase 1 of The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

Uneaten fruit in Phase 1 of The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

So, what have we learnt from all this investigating and documenting? Aside from the revelation that kids don’t eat the fruit in their packed lunch (one day I’ll count the number of untouched apples we documented), the most obvious thing is that we don’t recycle as much as we could.

Over the last few months the Science Museum has been working hard to put new systems in place for separating our rubbish both in public spaces and offices. The addition of recycling bins in public areas is a long overdue step forward for the Museum but we found that almost all recycling bags in public areas were contaminated with non-recyclable rubbish, so we need to do more to encourage and help visitors to recycle while they are here.

The amount of recyclable material lost to incineration because we are not yet separating café waste is a lot more than we would like but there are plans in place to roll out new segregation systems to all the Museum’s cafés in the near future. Just separating out the café food waste could reduce the Museum’s general waste tonnage by around a third.

Food waste from the Phase 1 of The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

Food waste from the Phase 1 of The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

Whilst the documentation was taking place in the Museum, behind the scenes we’ve been doing some detective work to find out where and how those materials are processed and what they go on to become. These days, very little is lost to landfill so most of the rubbish that left the Museum has been transformed into some other physical form, either through recycling or through incineration.

That transformed rubbish is now travelling back to the Science Museum, to be reunited with some of the most interesting items we retained from the bins. Over the next 10 days, Joshua Sofaer will be creating an exhibition showcasing what is produced from our rubbish, examining the beauty and value of the materials but also looking at the sheer volume that was produced over one month. The exhibition will open on 25 July but if you want a sneak preview before then, make sure to watch this space…

The Rubbish Collection continues with Phase 2 from 25 July to 14 September 2014.

Managing our waste

In the next of our series of posts linked to The Rubbish Collection, Sarah Harvey, Project Curator, talks to Neil Grundon, Deputy Chairman of Grundon Waste Management.

Grundon is the Science Museum’s main waste contractor, handling all our general and recyclable waste – approximately 30 tonnes per month in total! The Museum’s waste either goes to their Colnbrook Materials Recovery Facility and transfer station, or if non-recyclable, to the Lakeside Energy from Waste plant. Lakeside produces around 37 Megawatts of electricity each year – enough to power 50,000 homes.

I spoke to Neil Grundon, the company’s Deputy Chairman, about the future of recycling and waste management, and what we can all do to help.

Sarah: What does Grundon do?

Neil: Grundon is one of the UK’s leading suppliers of waste management and environmental services. We partner with our customers to help them reduce the financial and environmental impacts of their waste.

Grundon Waste Management Facility, Colnbrook © Science Museum

Grundon Waste Management Facility, Colnbrook © Science Museum

Sarah: What are the strangest or most difficult things to deal with that people throw away?

Neil: The strangest thing I’ve seen is a stuffed European Bear holding a lampstand. We’ve also taken a variety of wooden spacecraft used on film sets.

With regards to the most difficult things to deal with, my personal dislikes are garden hoses, inflatable rubber dinghies and beach balls. They always come in as one-offs and are impossible to segregate and recycle. I am sure that somebody will correct me on this, but by the time they reach us the only thing that we can do is to incinerate them for energy. Oh, I would also add those fluorescent glow necklaces that people wear at festivals – I dislike those too.

Sarah: What do you see as being the main challenges that the industry faces?

Neil: The main challenge for the industry is one of perception. Believe it or not, it is the leaders of waste management companies who lay awake at night wondering how to recycle composite plastics, not the manufacturers, the pressure groups or the public.

Grundon Waste Management Facility, Colnbrook © Science Museum

Grundon Waste Management Facility, Colnbrook © Science Museum

Sarah: What can consumers and organisations do better?

Neil: All consumers and organisations can do better – companies like Grundon only take away waste and treat it. We trust you to do the right things – and put it in the right bin!

My top 3 things that people could do differently would be:

1.       Where possible to separate food waste. It contaminates recyclables and it is heavy and too expensive to dispose of in landfill.

2.       Choose what you buy wisely, as ‘recycled’ does not always mean recyclable.

3.       Simply – use recycling bins.

Sarah: How can we encourage the public to recycle more?

Neil: The public need incentives to recycle. People see no benefit from separating their waste and are often conflicted when they hear various scare stories in the media.

Grundon have invested in a company called Greenredeem to correct this disconnect between us and the consumer. Greenredeem combines ‘reverse vending’ kiosk technology with a web-based membership and reward scheme. It aims to encourage people to recycle at home and ‘on the go’ and to help cut the vast number of cans and bottles which end up in landfill from litter bins or simply thrown away on the street.

Sarah: What do you think the industry will be like in 50 years’ time? What are the new innovations and technologies that you are exploring at the moment?

Neil: If the industry changes as much in the next 50 years as it has in the last 20 years it will be unrecognisable. At present we have two initiatives that we are very excited about. The first uses carbon dioxide to fix heavy metals within incinerator fly ash (a by-product of the Energy from Waste process) to create a carbon negative aggregate, which is used to create building blocks.

‘Carbon Buster’ breeze block, www.c8s.co.uk

‘Carbon Buster’ breeze block, www.c8s.co.uk

The second is a large facility that has been designed to extract the propellant gases and liquid content from aerosols and capture it for reuse. The added bonus is that we can then also recycle the aluminium and steel cans.

Grundon Waste Management new Hazpak 600 creates recycled aerosol blocks

Grundon Waste Management new Hazpak 600 creates recycled aerosol blocks

I am very excited about 3D printing, as I think it will revolutionise the supply chain and hopefully eliminate much of our packaging. However, there is a question mark over what we do with redundant printed material. One of the greatest challenges for the industry will be what to do with the recycled products of today when they become the waste products of tomorrow.

Many of these materials will happily go round time and time again, however that garden hose… …well who knows!

Sarah: What did you think when you first heard about Joshua Sofaer’s ‘The Rubbish Collection’ project?

Neil: What did I think? Well, it’s great that Joshua and the exhibition is raising awareness of the value of waste. Thank you Joshua, we need all the help we can get!

Visitors can take part in Phase 1 of The Rubbish Collection until 15 July 2014. Phase 2 is open from 25 July to 14 September 2014.

How the 1967 Wimbledon Championships made Broadcasting History

Chloe Vince, a volunteer working on our new Information Age gallery, looks back at the first colour TV broadcast.

Chances are that if you haven’t got tickets to the Wimbledon finals this weekend (and lucky you if you have!) you will instead be watching the match on a colour television. This may not seem particularly momentous, but it actually has real historic significance. It was 47 years ago, in 1967 that the Wimbledon Tennis Championships became the first ever UK television programme to be broadcast in colour.

The Championships were broadcast on BBC 2, which initially became the only channel to broadcast in colour, showing just five hours of colour TV a week. This transition from black and white to colour was a huge step-forward in broadcasting technology; however it was only appreciated by a few as there were less than 5,000 colour TV sets in circulation at the time. One of these was the Sony Trinitron TV, and this one (shown below) is part of the Science Museum collection.

The Sony Trinitron TV was one of the first TV sets to broadcast in colour. This model will be on display in the ‘Information Age’ gallery opening later this year.

The Sony Trinitron TV was one of the first TV sets to broadcast in colour. This model will be on display in the ‘Information Age’ gallery opening later this year. Credit: Science Museum / SSPL

The Sony Trinitron TV displayed colour by use of a ‘single-gun three-cathode picture tube’, capable of broadcasting separate red, green and blue signals (RGB) in succession. This technology was first developed by John Logie Baird, a Scottish engineer well-known as the inventor of the world’s first television. He demonstrated the first colour television publicly in 1928, but due to the war suspending the BBC television service, and ultimately ending his research, the development of this technology for broadcasting was delayed.

When the Wimbledon Championships did eventually become the first colour broadcast in 1967, the interest in colour TV quickly gained momentum. Viewers cited a greater feeling of realism when watching in colour and the broadcasts aim to exploit this interest by seeking more programmes that would benefit in colour, such as the snooker programme Pot Black, and children’s TV programme Thunderbirds. Shortly after Birds Eye Peas became the first colour advertisement. By mid-1968 nearly every BBC2 programme was in colour. BBC1 and ITV quickly followed and were also regularly broadcasting in colour by 1969.

However, broadcasters still made programmes in black and white for some time, due to the large expense of the TV sets, as well as the increased cost of a colour TV license (£10 in comparison to £5 for a black and white license) which made the demand for colour TV sets increase more slowly. By 1969 there were still only 100,000 in circulation but viewers soon caught up and by 1972 there were over 1.6 million in the UK.

The Wimbledon Championships are still acting as a landmark televised event today, as in 2011 it became the first TV programme to be broadcast in 3D. However, history repeated itself, as only a few viewers could appreciate the new technology due to the small number of 3D TV sets owned in the UK. So how long do you think it will be until we are all watching the Wimbledon Championships in 3D?

You can discover more about the history of communication technologies in a new Science Museum gallery, Information Age, which opens later this year.