Category Archives: Exhibitions

Particle Fever breaks out at the Science Museum

By Pete Dickinson, Head of Comms at the Science Museum.

What better way to round off events linked to our Collider exhibition about the world’s greatest experiment than with a special screening of Particle Fever, a documentary exploring the same extraordinary story of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN?

Critics, such as the New York Times, have given the film rave reviews and there was a palpable buzz when Director Mark Levinson, was joined in the museum’s IMAX theatre by one of the stars of the film, experimental physicist Monica Dunford, for a revealing pre-screening conversation with broadcaster Alok Jha.

Dunford, who was a relative newcomer to CERN in Geneva when Levinson began filming for Particle Fever in 2007, is one of six scientists and engineers Levinson chose to follow out of more than 10,000 scientists from over 100 nations at CERN. She told the audience that her motivation for getting involved in the film was partly to change attitudes about scientists. As she put it, “my goal is to tell people what I do and them say awesome and not recoil in horror.”

Mark Levinson, a physicist turned filmmaker and Monica Dunford, physicist and star of the film “Particle Fever” pictured in the Collider exhibition.  Part of the Collider events programme “Particle Fever” - a special screening of the film with pre-screening Q&A about physics and filmmaking hosted by Alok Jha (Guardian Science correspondent) with director Mark Levinson, a physicist turned filmmaker and Monica Dunford, physicist and star of the film.

Mark Levinson, a physicist turned filmmaker and Monica Dunford, physicist and star of the film “Particle Fever” pictured in the Collider exhibition. 

With a beguiling mix of wit, levity and scientific gravitas, the film follows events at CERN as the LHC began circulating proton beams in 2008, the setbacks that followed, notably a ‘quench’ and explosive release of one ton of helium, and the jubilation – along with the tears of theoretician Peter Higgs – as history is made with the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, half a century after Higgs had glimpsed its existence with the help of mathematics.

Levinson, who worked on the movie with physicist/producer David Kaplan and editor Walter Murch (Apocalypse Now, The English Patient), was granted huge access and trust by the team at CERN, something he puts down to his own past as a particle physicist before he moved into film making.

Collider event “Particle Fever” Q&A. A special screening of the film with a pre-screening Q&A about physics and filmmaking hosted by Alok Jha (Guardian Science correspondent) with director Mark Levinson, a physicist turned filmmaker and Monica Dunford, physicist and star of the film.

The Science Museum hosted a  special screening of the film “Particle Fever” with a pre-screening Q&A about physics and filmmaking hosted by Alok Jha (Guardian Science Correspondent) with director Mark Levinson, a physicist turned filmmaker and Monica Dunford, physicist and star of the film.

He and Monica took the time to see our Collider exhibition to compare how our own creative team responded to the world’s greatest experiment: “It was fascinating and impressive to see the authenticity achieved in the Collider exhibition. Monica and I laughed that the detail even extended to the “telephone stations” and “physics cartoons” that are on bulletin boards all over CERN – and included an iconic photo from First Beam Day featuring Monica with a raised fist of celebration!”

The screening rounded off a series of events, staged in partnership with the Guardian, our media partner for Collider, which began with an extraordinary launch day with Professor Peter Higgs answering questions from a group of students from across the UK in our IMAX theatre. He was followed by novelist Ian McEwan and theoretical physicist, and Particle Fever star, Nima Arkani-Hamed sharing their thoughts on similarities and differences between the cultures of science and culture. The final IMAX event was a lecture by Stephen Hawking, who talked about the impact of the discovery of the Higgs and his life-long love of the Science Museum.

The grand finale of that day was a party launched by the Philharmonia Orchestra and attended by the speakers, along with Chancellor, George Osborne, the Director General of CERN, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, and director of the Science Museum Group, Ian Blatchford.

Collider runs at the Science Museum until 5 May 2014 (tickets can be booked here). The exhibition will then open at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester from May 23 – September 28 2014 (tickets available soon here).

Happy Cosmonautics Day!

Julia Tcharfas, Curatorial Assistant for our upcoming Cosmonauts exhibition, reflects on over fifty years of manned space flight.

I am thrilled to be part of the Science Museum team working on a new exhibition celebrating the achievements of the Russian space programme. Cosmonauts: Birth of the Space Age will bring together many unique artifacts that have never before been seen outside Russia, exploring some of the most remarkable and important stories from the dawn of the space age to Russia’s present leading role in space science and exploration.

Telling the story of the Cosmonauts is an important reminder of the remarkable achievements made by humans in little more than a century of scientific experimentation, cosmic speculation and daring risks. For someone of my generation, these achievements are regarded as an everyday reality. Humans now maintain a permanent presence, living and working in orbit, and so far over 500 international citizens have traveled to space, including cosmonauts, astronauts, taikonauts, as well as engineers, doctors, biologists, teachers, politicians, and even tourists. Every one of these space travelers owe their experience to the early work of the Russian Cosmonauts, and perhaps to one special pilot in particular.

53 years ago, on this day, April 12th, 1961, the Soviet pilot Yuri Gagarin inaugurated the era of manned spaceflight when he travelled into outer space in a rocket, completing a single orbit around the Earth in 108 minutes.

Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard the Vostok spacecraft.

Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard the Vostok spacecraft. Credit: Ria Novosti

Gagarin had been especially chosen from a group of 20 Russian pilots to be the world’s first cosmonaut. The decision was highly symbolic and political, and Gagarin’s working class upbringing and photogenic smile were just as important as his ability to withstand the extreme conditions of spaceflight.

The first 20 Soviet Cosmonauts. Yuri Gagarin is sitting to the left of Sergei Korolev the Chief Designer of the Soviet space programme.

The first 20 Soviet Cosmonauts. Yuri Gagarin is sitting to the left of Sergei Korolev the Chief Designer of the Soviet space programme. Credit: RIA Novosti

He was 27 years old the day of his legendary flight, dressed in a bright orange spacesuit and a helmet inscribed with ‘CCCP’ painted in red. The painted letters were a last minute addition, marking Gagarin as a Soviet citizen so that he would be recognized when found on his return.

He took off with the words ‘Poyehali!’ (Let’s go!).

Gagarin’s rocket was an adapted missile, called R-7 or ‘Semyorka’. The rocket carried his ‘Vostok’ spacecraft, which translates as ‘East’ in Russian. Vostok included a ball-shaped descent module – nicknamed the ‘tin can’, which Gagarin was strapped into and then shot into orbit like a cannon. With the passing years it seems astounding that such a seemingly rudimentary vessel enabled the first man to go to space.

As the news of the launch spread, people poured into the streets to celebrate the epic moment. My parents, who were children in the Soviet Union at the time of the launch, remember the day with great clarity. My mother recalls that the moment the news was announced people jumped to their feet and began to run. ‘Everyone was running and screaming, “We are flying!”’

In a way, the Soviet Union’s achievement turned fantasy into reality, for a moment transcending both the Earth’s atmosphere and the Cold War political climate of the era. Watching the cloud forms through his window, Gagarin told his ground control unit how beautiful the Earth looked.

Despite the worldwide attention, Gagarin’s flight had been shrouded in secrecy, especially his landing, the details of which were not released until the 1970’s. Most of the world was told that Gagarin was inside Vostok-1 in a complete process from take-off to landing. In fact, he came down by parachute separate from the descent module, landing safely on his feet. He famously greeted the first people he encountered with:

‘I am a friend, comrades, a friend.’

Gagarin returned to Moscow as a worldwide celebrity. Everybody wanted to hear what he had seen and felt. Invitations from many countries of the world began to pour in. Gagarin toured the world, always being welcomed with lavish parades and gifts. Along with his personal reputation, the event was commemorated by a myriad of monuments, art works, images, symbols, books, and memorabilia, which proliferated well beyond the Soviet Union. Some of those objects will be displayed in our Cosmonauts exhibition.

Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space, during his visit to France.

Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space, during his visit to France in 1963. Credit: Ria Novosti

Ever since 12 April 1961, the anniversary of Gagarin’s first flight has been celebrated in Russia and the former USSR countries as a holiday known as Cosmonautics Day. More recently the anniversary has been declared the International Day of Human Space Flight. The festivities are varied. A traditional ceremony takes place yearly in Russia, but new celebrations are still being imagined. A global event called Yuri’s Night has been organized since 2001 through social media. Such events are organized by people all over the world and include all night raves, film screenings, and other events to mark the occasion of the first human spaceflight.  However you choose to mark the occasion, this anniversary holds a profound meaning for all of us: it is a celebration of peace, cultural cooperation, and most importantly the idea that people can achieve extraordinary things.

Discover the dramatic history of the Russian space programme in our new exhibition, Cosmonauts: Birth of the Space Age, opening in November 2014.

Waiting for the end of the world with my father, James Lovelock

As a new exhibition on James Lovelock opens, his daughter Christine recalls her science-filled childhood and the night they sat up waiting for a comet to destroy the Earth.

Photo of James Lovelock in his laboratory at Coombe Mill. Image credit: Science Museum

Photo of James Lovelock in his laboratory at Coombe Mill. Image credit: Science Museum

When I was a child my father took us to the Science Museum in London. His favourite exhibit was the Newcomen steam engine, built in the early 18th century to pump water from mines. He told us how much the museum had inspired him when he was a child. Science had become the abiding passion of his life, and as we grew up it was the background to ours as well.

We lived for a while at the Common Cold Research Unit, where my father worked, at Harvard Hospital near Salisbury in Wiltshire, and even became part of the research. Whenever we caught a cold the scientists put on parties for us where we would pass on our germs, as well as parcels, to the volunteers who lived in the isolation huts.

My strongest memories of my father during this period are the conversations we had about scientific ideas, whether on country walks or at the dining table. We often had fun working out plots for stories, including one he helped me to write about some fossil hunters on a Dorset beach who stumbled on a fossilised radio set – with shocking implications for the established science of geology.

When we moved back to Wiltshire, he turned Clovers Cottage into the world’s only thatched space laboratory. It was full of interesting equipment, much of it home-made, including an electric Bunsen burner. The cottage used to have a skull and crossbones in the window, with the warning “Danger Radioactivity!” My father always said this was a good way to deter burglars.

Clovers Cottage in Wiltshire, 'the world's only thatched space laboratory', where Lovelock worked for Nasa in the 1960s investigating the possibility of life on Mars. Image credits: Christine Lovelock

Clovers Cottage in Wiltshire, ‘the world’s only thatched space laboratory’, where Lovelock worked for Nasa in the 1960s investigating the possibility of life on Mars. Image credits: Christine Lovelock

One evening in the 1960s, my father arrived home from a trip to Nasa’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California with some frightening news. A comet had been spotted that was expected to hit Earth that night. The Nasa astronomers back then didn’t have today’s computer technology and said there had been no time to go public with the news.

My father wasn’t worried about the potential disaster. His reaction was a mixture of apprehension, curiosity and excitement. As he said, “If it hits us and it’s the end of the world, we won’t know anything about it, but if there is a near miss, then we might see some amazing fireworks.” While the rest of Britain slept a peaceful sleep, we packed up the car and drove to the highest hill nearby.

I’ll always remember that night, when we snuggled under blankets in the darkness, waiting and watching for what might have been the end of the world. It didn’t happen, of course. The astronomers got it wrong, as my father expected they would, but in an odd – and unscientific – way we felt we had done our bit to keep the Earth safe.

James Lovelock and his daughter Christine collecting air samples in Adrigole, South-West Ireland, 1970. Image credits: Irish Examiner

James Lovelock and his daughter Christine collecting air samples in Adrigole, South-West Ireland, 1970. Image credits: Irish Examiner

As I grew older I began to help my father more with his work. One day I will never forget is when we went up Hungry Hill on the Beara Peninsula in Ireland in 1969. Our mission was to collect samples of the cleanest air in Europe, blowing straight off the Atlantic. My father then drove straight on to Shannon Airport, and flew with the samples to the United States.

On arrival, a customs officer thought my father was being facetious when he said the flasks contained “fresh Irish air”. An argument ensued in which the official demanded that the flasks be opened, which would have made the whole journey pointless. Fortunately, sense prevailed and the samples reached their destination safely.

Christine Lovelock is an artist who campaigns to preserve the countryside.

You can watch our Youtube video of James Lovelock talking about the inspiration behind his inventions and what the Science Museum means to him.

Where’s that huge iceberg headed?

Corrinne Burns blogs on ADIOS, a GPS enabled javelin which helps tracks icebergs. You can see ADIOS on display in the Museum’s contemporary science gallery.    

Why would you put a GPS tracker onto a glacier? These positioning devices are more commonly associated with cars. It’s not like glaciers are in any danger of getting lost – or of ending up in a field of bemused cows, for that matter.

Actually, there’s good reason why scientists track the movement of ice. The Antarctic Ice Sheet is the biggest unknown when it comes to predicting sea level change.

An iceberg breaking away. Credit: NASA

An iceberg breaking away. Credit: NASA

Glaciers move – we all know that. It’s natural. But as the ocean temperature rises, glaciers move at an increased rate. That’s because melting, triggered by the warming sea, causes the ice streams within the glacier to flow faster and faster.

And of course, as glaciers melt, the global sea level rises.

So this “flow velocity”, as glaciologists call is, can be used as a way to track rising sea levels. That’s why it’s so important to track the movement of glacial ice streams.

Hilmar Gudmundsson works at the British Antarctic Survey, keeping an eye on ice dynamics. He’s been putting GPS trackers onto glaciers for a while now. Traditionally, a helicopter lands a crew onto the glacial surface, and then they walk across the frostbitten landscape, implanting trackers as they go.

But Hilmar knows how dangerous walking on ice can be – deep crevasses await the unwary. So he helped to invent a rather unusual way to deploy such trackers, so that no human need even set foot on the ice.

The solution was ADIOS – the Aircraft-Deployable Ice Observation System. ADIOS is, essentially, a GPS tracker embedded within a 2.5-metre long javelin, designed to be dropped from an aircraft flying a few hundred metres above the ice. One such ADIOS device is currently on display in the Museum’s Antenna gallery.

ADIOS – the Aircraft-Deployable Ice Observation System. Credit: British Antarctic Survey

ADIOS – the Aircraft-Deployable Ice Observation System. Credit: British Antarctic Survey

ADIOS takes inspiration from technology originating from World War Two – the sonobuoy. These were floating sonar transducers, deployed by aircraft into the ocean to listen out for warships. Hilmar and colleagues adapted this wartime concept for the 21st century Antarctic – but glaciers do present some challenges that water does not.

For one, the electronics needed to survive the impact on hard ice – a polyethylene cushion and a spring help to protect them from impact forces of up to 1200G, and a parachute slows and stabilises ADIOS’ descent. You also need to consider the effects of snowfall – anything placed on the surface is likely to be covered in snowdrifts pretty quickly.

Those considerations led to the long, aerodynamic javelin-like design.

The GPS tracker itself is positioned towards the sharp nosecone-end of ADIOS, and, after landing, sits below the surface of the ice. It transmits through an antenna situated at the opposite end of the javelin – which, thanks to four “snow brakes”, remains above the snow surface. It is so long that it can remain uncovered even following thick snowfall, transmitting for up to two years.

Hilmar’s interested in part of Antarctica called the Pine Island Glacier, or PIG. His team deployed 37 ADIOS sensors onto the glacier in January of last year. PIG is significant because of all the icy regions on Earth, this glacier is showing the biggest changes in ice movement and thickness, so we need to keep an eye on it. “We can already see that the rate of ice flow is increasing, since we deployed those units,” says Hilmar.

Even more dramatically, a few months ago a 700 square km bit of PIG broke off, forming a massive rogue iceberg that is now further fragmenting and drifting towards shipping lanes. Two ADIOS’ sit on that rogue berg – not by coincidence. “We knew that this ice was breaking away from PIG – that’s why we put two ADIOS units on it,” says Hilmar. As the rogue iceberg has broken apart further, those units now sit on two different fragments – and are still sending back live data about position.

So, as well as telling us about glacial melt, ADIOS units can be used to track the movements of icebergs heading for shipping lanes. Will we see more air-deployed GPS trackers on icebergs around the world, then? “This is now tried-and-tested technology. There’s a lot of interested from other researchers, and we’ll let them use the design,” says Hilmar. “And for me – I’m relieved that it works!”

You can find out more about ADIOS, in the Science Museum’s contemporary science gallery from now until April 10, 2014. 

World must adapt to climate change, says IPCC

By Roger Highfield, Director of External Affairs

The world is ill prepared for an unknown climate future and must adapt to meet the challenges, according to a report issued today by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in Yokohama, Japan. You can read the press summary of the UN agency’s report here and the full report here, written by 309 authors and editors drawn from 70 countries.

Today’s report, which focuses on how there will be sweeping consequences to life and livelihood, and how to adapt to them, is the second of three in the IPCC’s fifth assessment of climate change.

The first instalment, released last year, covered the physical science of climate change.  The third, on how to cut emissions that drive climate change, comes out in April.

At the Science Museum, you can keep up to date with the issues surrounding climate change through a series of exhibitions, artworks and educational activities. Our interactive Atmosphere gallery, encourages visitors to learn about the work of early pioneers such as John Tyndall, uncover the secrets of ice cores and stalagmites, and wonder at the latest ideas for a low-carbon life. You can also play a climate themed computer game called Rizk.

To see how fiction has been inspired by climate change, download the Museum’s first novel, Shackleton’s Man Goes South, by Tony White. You can also discover the beauty, value and volume of ‘rubbish’ we produce in an upcoming exhibition, The Rubbish Collection – which will trace the journey of waste generated by staff and visitors to the Museum over a 30 day period.

James Lovelock in his laboratory.

James Lovelock in his laboratory.

Next week we will celebrate the life and 70 year career of James Lovelock – one of Britain’s most important living scientists, with an exhibition, Unlocking Lovelock: Scientist, Inventor, Maverick. The exhibition will feature highlights from a remarkable archive of images, manuscripts and audio-visual material acquired by the Museum in 2012 – providing visitors with a glimpse into life in Lovelock’s laboratory and his creative mind and charismatic personality.

The House of Commons Science and Technology Select Committee will publish a report on the public understanding of climate change later this week after holding a hearing in the Museum last year.

Designing Collider

We sat down with Pippa Nissen from Nissen Richards Studio to talk about her team’s work on our Collider exhibition.

Left to right: Pippa Nissen, Simon Rochowski and Ashley Fridd from Nissen Richards Studio

Left to right: Pippa Nissen, Simon Rochowski and Ashley Fridd from Nissen Richards Studio

Can you tell our readers a little about NISSEN RICHARDS studio and the kinds of projects you work on?

We are a bit unusual as a design practice as we work in different sectors; architecture, theatre and exhibition. We love the way that they have slightly different rhythms and processes that all feed on each other. Exhibition design sits nicely between architecture and theatre; it’s about the space and form of different spaces (architecture), but ultimately is about a visitor experience in a timeline across these (theatre).

You went out to CERN several times for the Collider exhibition, what was your impression of the place?

We were completely bowled over by CERN – it was extraordinary as well as full of the ordinary. The sheer size and aesthetic was beautiful – both above ground and below. In the corridors and the warehouses that you arrive in – it felt as if everything was frozen in time from somewhere around 1970 with an austere and functional Swiss graphic language thrown in.

Below ground was like a science fiction film, or being in a giant Ferrari engine – stunningly beautiful and utterly functional.

We also loved the fact that people led normal lives that went on while they were working on such mind-blowing things; and how these clashed unexpectedly. One scientist for example had his kitchen organised so that he could still see the operational screens of CERN – so he could be eating breakfast, helping his children with their homework and watching a collision happening.

The humanness of the spaces also shone through – funny posters about the CERN lifestyle (dancing and singing clubs etc) or jokes pinned up next to an equation and technical drawing of the tunnel – how CERN was filled by thousands of people doing their job – all contributing to something cutting edge and important.

We were particularly taken for example by a scribbled note on a wipe board in the control room saying ‘Don’t forget to reset the undulators!’ next to a comic-book style joke cut out from a magazine about scientists.

What approach did you take in the exhibition design?

We had this amazing experience at CERN, being shown around by extraordinary scientists that were passionate about their work but incredibly friendly and clear in their explanations.

We had a real sense of this being a place where everyone was involved for the good of it all – at the forefront of science – like travelling in space, not knowing exactly what they were about to discover, which was incredibly exciting.

It was full of different people, of different nationalities, with conversations moving freely from English to French to Italian etc. It felt like a truly collaborative and non-hierarchical place.

That is what we wanted to capture – and we decided to base the experience for the visitor to the museum on the same idea – as if you were gaining access to these wonderful people and spaces that few get to see.

Early drawings of the Collider exhibition

Early drawings of the Collider exhibition

As a piece of design, I really enjoy the spatial rhythm of the exhibition; it takes you around the exhibition and helps you in what to look at, giving you clues and gestures, how spaces vary and change as you go through.

Exploring the corridors of CERN, Collider exhibition.

Exploring the corridors of CERN, Collider exhibition. Credit: Science Museum

I also love the graphic language developed by both Finn Ross the video designer (see more of Finn’s photos from his visit to CERN here), and Northover & Brown the 2D designers, which supplements our designs – adding a level of detail in a bold and photographic but abstract way: how the beam of the Collider becomes a character in your journey as a visitor.

There was a very diverse team working on Collider, including people from the worlds of theatre, design, museums and science. What was the development process like?

The “diverse-ness” of the team was hugely enjoyable but also a great challenge. If everyone in the team had been in one room, it could have been quite overwhelming.

There were video designers, lighting designer, sound designer, playwright, costume designers, and actors and there were also other consultants such as graphic designers, conservators, security experts, quantity surveyors, project managers, and of course the scientists and people from CERN.

To find a clear voice we decided to work through workshops; something that we have done before especially in the theatre where we work with many different artists.

This was a very enjoyable process – we would all be together in a room, brainstorm and slowly plot out the visitors’ journey as if we were making a film. We used flipcharts, models, photos, text, films etc that we pinned all round the rooms of various parts of the Science Museum.

Are there any particular highlights during the design process that stand out?

There are so many wonderful moments. But to pick a few; setting up a green screen in the Science Museum while Brian Cox made his cameo; going to the stunning underground spaces of the detectors and filming; and workshop-ing with our playwright and actors in a small rehearsal space in Whitechapel. We all realised that we were creating something quite special.

What has the reaction to the exhibition been?

The day after the exhibition opened we were on tenterhooks and rather perfectly, the Independent Newspaper ran a front-page story with a large picture of Peter Higgs with the headline “Intelligent design: ‘God Particle’ theorist opens sublime exhibition”.

Peter Higgs at the launch of the Collider exhibition.

Peter Higgs at the launch of the Collider exhibition. Credit: Science Museum

I went straight from the newsagent to the framers and now it has pride of place in our studio. The reaction from the press has been very positive with 5* reviews.

But our greatest praise is from visitors who say that they feel as if they have taken a trip to CERN, and understand both what the people are like, and a bit more about the science behind it.

Are there any other exhibitions/projects that inspired your work on Collider?

It is interesting that the work we talked about the most when making Collider – were theatre projects that we had worked on or we had visited. Ones where the audience moves around between events and their journey is tailored and twisted by using actors, musicians, video, props, and installations.

We have worked on a couple of these kinds of projects for Aldeburgh Festival. On “The Way to the Sea” we took over a village in Suffolk for a week, and staged two musical performances in different locations, while a 500 strong audience walked between locations coming across signs, poetry, actors, props, speakers, and installations.

My most memorable type of exhibition event that sticks in my mind and inspired me to study theatre design in the first place is over 20 years ago in the Clink (before it was developed). The artist Robert Wilson worked with a sound designer to create a series of stories that you wandered through as a visitor, each like exquisite tableau.

There were a series of these kind of events in the late 80’s early 90’s and I spent my student years assisting Hildegard Bechtler on a few of her pioneering projects, where she took over buildings to subvert the theatre and create more of a total experience for the audience from the moment they entered the theatre building. It is tremendously exciting to use this in exhibition design years later.

Do you think that the mixture of theatre and exhibition works?

I think that it really works, and for me it is about helping the visitor engage with the content of exhibitions. In a theatrical setting people can have an emotional sensorial connection – through sound, smell, touch – and once engaged they can spend time to understand and interpret the meaning of the objects or artefacts.

I feel that there is a lot of scope in this – and exhibitions are becoming different to what they used to be. It is now not enough to put some objects in a showcase and write a label – I learn from my own children that they often feel like they need a way in when visiting museums.

Ultimately it is all about the objects as they are the authentic elements. However we can help with giving them meaning through designing people’s experience.

We will continue to use elements of theatre in our work, and enjoy the relationship between what is real with its own set of history, and what we are adding to allow you in.

The Collider exhibition runs at the Science Museum until 5 May 2014 (tickets can be booked here). The exhibition will then open at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester from May 23 – September 28 2014 (tickets available soon here).

Happy 25th Birthday World Wide Web!

Tilly Blyth, Lead Curator for Information Age, reflects on how the World Wide Web came into existence.

It was 25 years ago today that the World Wide Web was born. Only a quarter of a century ago, but in that short time it has transformed our world. In a recent Great British Innovation Vote, musician Brian Eno said that ‘no technology has been so pervasive so quickly as the internet’.

On 12 March 1989, the British computer scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee wrote his influential paper “Information Management: A Proposal” and circulated it to colleagues at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Scientists from all over the world were brought together at CERN to conduct research, but Berners-Lee identified that there was a problem with the way information was managed and shared between them. His proposal suggested a way of linking documents through a system of hypertext.

Rather wonderfully, Berners-Lee’s boss, Mike Sendall commented that the proposal was ‘Vague but exciting…’ but he agreed to purchase a NeXT computer. The machine was to become the world’s first web server and Berners-Lee used it to build the first ever website. Today, the only evidence on the machine of its important history is a torn sticker that says: “This machine is a server. DO NOT POWER IT DOWN!!”

To celebrate the birthday of the Web, from today we are putting Tim Berners-Lee’s NeXT cube computer on display in our Making the Modern World gallery. In Autumn 2014 it will move into our new Information Age gallery, to play a leading role in the stories of the last 200 years of information and communication technologies.

Baroness Martha Lane-Fox (co-founder of Lastminute.com) visiting the Science Museum to unveil the NeXT cube – the original machine on which Sir Tim Berners-Lee designed the World Wide Web, at an event to mark 25 years since Berners-Lee submitted the first proposal for the web on 12 March 1989 at CERN.

Baroness Martha Lane-Fox visiting the Science Museum to unveil the NeXT cube – the original machine on which Sir Tim Berners-Lee designed the World Wide Web. Credit Science Museum.

Yesterday, we celebrated the arrival of the NeXT computer at the Museum and the impending anniversary, with a reception attended by Martha Lane Fox and Rick Haythornthwaite, Chair of the Web Foundation.

But a birthday for the Web is not just a chance to reflect on the past, but to look towards the future. What kind of Web do we want? Currently only 3 in 5 people across the world have access to the Web. Do we want a tool that is open and accessible to anyone? And do we want to control our public and private data? How can we ensure that the Web isn’t only a device for a few companies, but gives us all rights to achieve our potential? Through the #web25 hashtag Tim Berners-Lee is inviting us all to share our thoughts.

Discover more about how the web has shaped our world in the new Information Age gallery, opening in Autumn 2014.

Information Age: Testing, testing, 1 2 3

Jack Gelsthorpe and Lauren Souter are both Audience Researchers working on the new Information Age gallery. Here they discuss some of the work they do in prototyping digital media for the exhibition.

In September 2014 an exciting new gallery, Information Age, which celebrates the history of information and communication technologies, is due to open at the Science Museum.

The gallery will include some truly fascinating objects such as the 2LO transmitter, part of the Enfield telephone Exchange and the impressive Rugby Tuning Coil. As well as these large scale objects, the exhibition will house smaller objects such as a Baudot Keyboard, a Crystal Radio Set, and a Morse Tapper.

Information Age will also contain a host of digital technology and interactive displays where visitors will be able to explore the stories behind the objects and the themes of the exhibition in more detail.

This is where we come in.

As Audience Researchers, it is our job to make sure that visitors can use and engage with the digital displays in this gallery whilst also ensuring that they don’t draw attention away from the objects and the stories they tell.

We do this by testing prototypes of the interactive exhibits, games, web resources and apps with visitors both in the museum and through focus groups. There are three stages in the prototyping process. We begin by showing people a ‘mock up’ of a resource so that we can get feedback on our initial ideas. This can be very basic, for example we have been testing for Information Age with storyboards on paper, handmade models (which have sometimes fallen apart during the testing process!) and computers.

A prototype of an interactive model that represents the Baudot Keyboard

A prototype of an interactive model that represents the Baudot Keyboard

We invite visitors to try these prototypes while we observe and make notes and then we interview them afterwards. This helps us to understand what people think about our ideas, whether people find the resources usable and whether the stories we want to tell are being conveyed effectively. We then discuss our findings with the Exhibition team who are then able to further develop their ideas. The resources are tested a second and third time using the same process to ensure that the final experience is interesting, fun and engaging.

As well as testing these resources in a special prototyping room we also test some of the experiences in the museum galleries to see how visitors react to them in a more realistic setting.

Recently we have been prototyping electro-mechanical interactive models of some of the smaller objects that will be on display in Information Age. These exhibits intend to give visitors an insight into what it would have been like to use these objects whilst explaining the scientific processes behind how they work.

A prototype of an interactive model that represents the Double Needle Telegraph.

A prototype of an interactive model that represents the Double Needle Telegraph.

We will be testing different digital experiences until September, so you may see us in the prototyping room or the galleries. If you see us feel free to say hello and ask us any questions.

Experience these interactive models for yourself in the new Information Age gallery, opening Autumn 2014.

Peter Higgs: The Life Scientific

Quantum physicist and broadcaster Jim Al-Khalili blogs on interviewing Peter Higgs for the new series of The Life Scientific on BBC Radio 4. Discover more about the LHC, particle physics and the search for the Higgs boson in our Collider exhibition

I love name dropping about some of the science superstars I’ve interviewed on The Life Scientific. ”Richard Dawkins was quite charming on the programme, you know”, or “James Lovelock is as sharp as ever”, and so on. So imagine my excitement when I heard I would be interviewing the ultimate science celebrity Peter Higgs.

When I discovered we had secured him for the first programme in the new 2014 series, I knew I had to get something more out of him than to simply regurgitate the popular account of the man as shy, modest and unassuming, and still awkward about having a fundamental particle named after him; or how the Nobel committee were unable to get hold of him on the day of the announcement because he had obliviously wandered off to have lunch with friends.

This was an opportunity for two theoretical physicists – OK, one who has a Nobel Prize to his name and one who doesn’t, but let’s not split hairs here – to chat about the thrill of discovery and to peek into the workings of nature, whilst the outside world listened in.

A couple of Bosons: Peter Higgs with Jim Al-Khalili

A couple of Bosons: Peter Higgs with Jim Al-Khalili. Credit: Charlie Chan

You can listen to the programme from 18 February, but here are a few extracts to whet your appetite.

Can you explain the Higgs mechanism in 30 seconds?

At some point in the programme, inevitably, I had to ask Peter to explain the Higgs mechanism and Higgs field (both more fundamental concepts than the Higgs boson). He gave a beautifully articulate and clear explanation, but I then thought I should ask him to give the ‘idiot’s guide to the Higgs’, just to cover all bases. Here’s how that went:

‘The Boson that Bears my Name’

Working alone in Edinburgh in the sixties, Peter Higgs was considered ‘a bit of a crank’. “No-one wanted to work with me”, he says. In 1964, he predicted the possible existence of a new kind of boson, but at the time there was little interest in this now much-celebrated insight. And in the years that followed, Peter Higgs himself failed to realise the full significance of his theory, which would later transform particle physics.

In July 2012, scientists at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN confirmed that the Higgs boson had indeed been found and Peter Higgs shot to fame. This ephemeral speck of elusive energy is now the subject of car adverts, countless jokes, museum exhibitions and even a song by Nick Cave called the Higgs Boson Blues. But Higgs has always called it the scalar boson or, jokingly, ‘the boson that bears my name’ and remains genuinely embarrassed that it is named after him alone.

In fact, three different research groups, working independently, published very similar papers in 1964 describing what’s now known as the Higgs mechanism. And Higgs told me he’s surprised that another British physicist, Tom Kibble from Imperial College, London didn’t share the 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics, along with him and Belgian physicist, Francois Englert.

On fame
When the 2013 Nobel Prize winners were announced, Peter was famously elusive (much to the frustration of the world’s media). Most people romanticised that he was blissfully unaware of all the fuss or just not that interested. These days, he’s constantly being stopped in the street and asked for autographs, so I asked him whether he enjoyed being famous:

Physics post-Higgs
With the discovery of the Higgs finally ticked off our to-do list, attention is turning to the next challenge: to find a new family of particles predicted by our current front-runner theory, called supersymmetry. Higgs would ‘like this theory to be right’ because it is the only way theorists have at the moment of incorporating the force of gravity into the grand scheme of things.

But what if the Large Hadron Collider doesn’t reveal any new particles? Will we have to build an even bigger machine that smashes subatomic particles together with ever-greater energy? In fact, Peter Higgs believes that the next big breakthrough may well come from a different direction altogether, for example by studying the behaviour of neutrinos, the elusive particles believed the be the most common in the Universe, which, as Higgs admits, “is not the sort of thing the Large Hadron Collider is good for”.

When it started up in 2008, physicists would not have dreamt of asking for anything bigger than the Large Hadron Colider. But today one hears serious talk of designing a machine that might one day succeed it. One candidate is the somewhat unimaginatively named Very Large Hadron Collider. Such a machine would dwarf the Large Hadron Collider. It would collide protons at seven times higher energy than the maximum the Large Hadron Collider is able to reach. And it would require a tunnel 100 km in circumference. Of course this is not the only proposal on the table and there are plenty of other ideas floating about – none of which come cheap, naturally.

There are certainly plenty more deep mysteries to solve, from the nature of dark matter and dark energy to where all the antimatter has gone, and we will undoubtedly find the answers (oh, the delicious arrogance of science). Let’s just hope we don’t have to wait as long as Peter Higgs did.

Keen to discover more? You can listen to Peter Higgs on BBC Radio 4′s The Life Scientific (first broadcast 9am on 18 February) and visit the Collider exhibition at the Science Museum until 5 May 2014. 

3D printing gadgets on wheels

Martyn Harris, cyclist and entrepreneur, looks at how 3D printing inspired him to launch a new business. See more examples of 3D Printing in our 3D: Printing the future exhibition.

My two lifelong passions are cycling and engineering. As a child I could regularly be found either riding my bike or constructing some new contraption out of lego. I started racing mountain bikes at the age of 13 and after leaving school, embarked on a four year apprenticeship to become a precision machinist.

In 2000 I joined 3TRPD, a newly formed company specializing in 3D printing. I was instantly hooked by this state-of-the-art process and have been seeking ways to introduce the technology into the bike industry ever since.

3 colour Garmin cycle mounts produced by RaceWare Direct. Image credit: RaceWare Direct

3 colour Garmin cycle mounts produced by RaceWare Direct. Image credit: RaceWare Direct

When I found myself struggling to find a sleek way of mounting my power meter to my Time Trial bike, it was the catalyst that I needed to start designing my own components using 3D printing. I opened my own company, RaceWare Direct at the beginning of 2012.

Neon Garmin mount by RaceWare Direct. Image credit: RaceWare Direct

Neon Garmin mount by RaceWare Direct. Image credit: RaceWare Direct

Having posted on cycle forums that I was making 3D printed computer mounts, the level of enthusiasm was overwhelming. Within a matter of weeks, I had dozens of potential orders and several designers who wanted to help me with new products. By the end of the year, we had a full range of products and had secured UK distribution with Saddleback, a well respected distributor of high end cycle products.

My future vision for RaceWare is for it to grow into the world leader in 3D printed cycle components.

You can see a selection of gadgets produced by RaceWare on display in the Science Museum’s 3D printing exhibition.