Category Archives: Science news

3D Gun goes on display

For the past two months the Contemporary Science team has been working hard to obtain a 3D printed gun. This week it arrived, explains Assistant Content Developer Pippa Hough.

The 3D printed gun now on display has a short, but complex history. The design was created by Defence Distributed – a non-profit digital organisation and placed, open source, on their website so anyone could freely download and share it.

The 3D printed gun, now on display in the Science Museum. Credit: Science Museum

The 3D printed gun, now on display in the Science Museum. Credit: Science Museum

Ville Vaarnes, a journalist in Finland, did just that and had the design printed in a university lab using a high quality 3D printer. He then put it together with the help of a gun maker and fired it. The gun broke into several pieces, shattering the gun barrel.

The 3D printed gun in pieces.

The 3D printed gun in pieces. Credit: Science Museum

It is completely illegal to own even a single component of a hand gun in the UK, including a 3D printed gun unless, like the Science Museum, you have a special licence. Manufacturing our own wasn’t an option as we only have a licence to display hand guns. Having seen a video of the gun being fired, we decided this was the only feasible opportunity we would have of acquiring a 3D printed gun.

From an engineering point of view, the gun isn’t particularly special, but displaying it allows us to start a conversation around how the limitless possibilities free access to information, combined with new manufacturing techniques, like 3D printing, will impact on our lives.

On the face it having a printer that could sit on your desk and print any object you have the design for seems like a wonderful prospect. The gun represents the limitless, freely available objects you could print, but also the possible desire or need for regulations to limit our access to this information or the tools to produce them.

The inside of the 3D printed gun. Image: Science Museum

The inside of the 3D printed gun. Image: Science Museum

Creating physically dangerous items like the gun isn’t the only potential threat from 3D printing in the future. You could produce counterfeit designs of a copyrighted item, damaging the business that spent time and money producing the original. What incentive does a business have to produce innovative, exciting products if their designs can be so easily pirated? The music and film industries have struggled with these problems for years. How will other industries cope?

On the other hand what about our freedom to design and print whatever we want? The internet is not restricted by borders. You can download files from all over the world. If the information can’t be controlled can the means of manufacture? Should 3D printers require a licence to own?

When the initial story broke we wrote a news story, including a poll question ‘Should we have access to 3D-print plans for guns?’ 780 people voted, 42% said ‘no’ way 43% voted ‘yes’. The rest voted maybe or I’m not sure. Our visitors are clearly split on the issue; law makers have quite a challenge on their hands trying to maintain the maximum freedom while ensuring public safety.

Science Museum launches Britain’s first official astronaut

By Roger Highfield and Doug Millard. Roger Highfield is Director of External Affairs at the Science Museum Group. Doug Millard is Deputy Keeper Technologies & Engineering and is currently leading on content for a major new exhibition of Russian space exploration opening in 2014.

The Science Museum has welcomed many astronauts and cosmonauts over the years and each time our visitors have been spellbound. Today, we witnessed the announcement of Briton Tim Peake’s mission to visit the International Space Station, ISS.

Tim Peake will be the first British astronaut to visit the International Space Station.

Tim Peake will be the first British astronaut to visit the International Space Station. Image: BIS

Peake (who tweets as @astro_timpeake), will join Expedition 46 to the ISS, and will be carried aloft by a Soyuz mission in November 2015.

His selection by the European Space Agency was announced to the world’s media in the Science Museum’s IMAX at an event introduced by Director Ian Blatchford.

Ian Blatchford, Science Museum Director (l) welcomes Tim Peake and Science Minister David Willetts (r) to the Museum. Image: Science Museum

Ian Blatchford, Science Museum Director (l) welcomes Tim Peake and Science Minister David Willetts (r) to the Museum. Image: Science Museum

Peake, who is based in the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, said  that he is ”absolutely delighted” and saw the mission as the culmination of everything he had worked for during his  career, though he admitted that he had misgivings about the disruption caused by moving his family – he has two young sons – to Houston.

However, he was not concerned about the risks of the mission, since his future career was ‘probably safer’ than past career as helicopter test pilot.

His tasks once in orbit will include helping to maintain the space station, operating its robotic arm and carrying out science experiments in Esa’s Columbus laboratory module, which is attached to the front of the 400-ton ISS complex.

Backdropped by a colourful Earth, this full view of the International Space Station was photographed from the Space Shuttle Discovery.

Backdropped by a colourful Earth, this full view of the International Space Station was photographed from the Space Shuttle Discovery. Credit: NASA/SSPL

Peake said that he hoped there would be space biomedicine experiments and that the UK scientific community would rise to the opportunities presented by microgravity experiments.

“Major Tim” told the press conference that in preparation for this challenge he had lived in a Sardinian cave for a week, flew on what is popularly known as a ‘vomit comet’, has spent 12 days in Nasa’s Extreme Environment Mission Operations, an underwater base, and he has undergone training with Russian and American spacesuits so he will also be able to perform a spacewalk.

The recently returned ISS commander, Canadian Chris Hadfield, attracted a big following for his tweets, videos and songs from the platform which Peake said built a worldwide audience. However, Peake dashed any hopes of a pop video by admitting: ‘I do play the guitar but very badly.’

Peake hails from Chichester, and is the “first official British astronaut” for the European Space Agency, selected from 8000 candidates. Previous UK-born individuals who have gone into orbit have done so either through the US space agency (Nasa) as American citizens or on independent ventures organised with the assistance of the Russian space agency.

Tim Peake answers questions from the press at the Science Museum.

Tim Peake answers questions from the press at the Science Museum. Image: Science Museum

Thomas Reiter, a former astronaut and Director of ESA’s Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations, congratulated Peake ‘It is a remarkable moment for your country. You all can be proud of Timothy.’ And Dr David Parker of the UK Space Agency said nothing inspires like human explorers at the final frontier.

David Willetts, Minister for Universities and Science, said that this mission is part of effort to rebalance the economy – the UK space industry is worth £9.1 billion to the economy – and pointed out that the space sector is growing by 8 per cent each year.

He added that the mission underlined the inspirational values of space – the ‘Apollo effect’ – and will encourage more young people to take up STEM (science, technology and maths) subjects at schools and universities. ‘I have high hopes it will interest a generation of students in science and technology.’

The minister said that the objects in the Science Museum are a reminder of the UK’s distinguished history in space exploration and that he is now looking into a competition for schools based on the mission to the ISS.

Tim Peake pictured with a space suit from the Exploring Space gallery. Image: Science Museum

Tim Peake pictured with a space suit from the Exploring Space gallery. Image: Science Museum

Prime Minister, David Cameron, commented:  “This is a momentous day, not just for Tim Peake but for Great Britain. Tim was picked for this historic role from over 8,000 applicants from around the world. I am sure he will do us proud.”

Helen Sharman was the first Briton to go into space in 1991 in a joint venture between a number of UK companies and the Soviet government and spent a week at the Mir space station.

Sharman spoke at a recent event at the museum to celebrate International Women’s Day. The museum has her space suit on display and, only a few weeks ago, she stood before her suit as she told leading figures in drama and theatre about her experiences in orbit.

The most experienced UK-born astronaut is Nasa’s Michael Foale, who completed long-duration missions to both the ISS and Mir.

Media Space unveiled to film, theatre and TV celebrities

Blog post by Roger Highfield, Director of External Affairs

The museum’s plans to create a £4 million Media Space - a showcase for photography, visual media, technology and science - were outlined a few days ago to leading figures in drama, film and the arts, from Jenny Agutter and Imogen Stubbs to Terry Gilliam and Ben Okri.

Call the midwife actress with Ian Blatchford and Roger Highfield.

Call the midwife actress, Jenny Agutter OBE, with Science Museum Director Ian Blatchford (left) and Director of External Affairs, Roger Highfield.

Kathy Lette, Eammon Holmes and Michael G Wilson

Australian author Kathy Lette, Presenter Eamonn Holmes and Film Producer and Chairman of the Science Museum Foundation, Michael G WIlson.

Ian Blatchford, director of the Science Museum Group, give an overview of how the new venture will open on the second floor of the museum this September to display some of the finest collections on the planet while speaking at a lunch organised by Chris Hastings of the Mail on Sunday, also attended by Ed Vaizey, Minister for Culture, Communications and Creative Industries.

Ian Blatchford's speech.

Director of Science Museum Ian Blatchford welcoming guests to the lunch.

Media Space will draw on the National Photography Collection held by the National Media Museum, Bradford. The first exhibition will be Only in England: Photographs by Tony Ray-Jones and Martin Parr,  and the inaugural installation in the Virgin Media Studio will be by digital artist studio collaborators Universal Everything, supported by Hyundai Motor UK.

Michael G Wilson

Chairman of the Science Museum Foundation and executive producer of the James Bond movies, Michael G WIlson, addresses Dame Diana Rigg and guests at the Sixth Arts Media Lunch.

Also addressing the lunch was Michael Wilson, executive producer of the James Bond films, who has been one of the most passionate supporters of Media Space over the years through his interest in photography, which dates back to the 1970s.

Between 2004 and 2012, Wilson was a trustee of the Science Museum and it was during this time he conceived a plan to develop a 1800 m² space in the Museum to display photographs, a venture which has now grown to include new media.

Today, Michael Wilson is a member of the museum’s Foundation , which “ensures philanthropic leadership”, encouraging donors to give their support to  the museum’s development.

Other guests included Lord Bragg, Haydn Gwynne, Lesley Manville, Eamonn Holmes,  Prof Steve Jones, Duncan Kenworthy;  Kathy Lette, Arlene Phillips and Brigitte Hjort Sorensen.

Also present was Ali Boyle, Project Leader on Collider, a new exhibition on the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva. Opening in November 2013, Collider is being created with the help of Nissen Richards Studio, playwright Michael Wynne and video artist Finn Ross.

After lunch, many of the guests went on a tour of the museum’s award-winning Turing exhibition, given by curator David Rooney.

To view more photos from the sixth Arts Media Lunch at the Science Museum visit the Science Museum’s flickr gallery.

Science Museum, Met Office and Defra host water summit

As Britain lurches from flood to drought, even the most hardened climate sceptic would have to admit that our relationship with that most fundamental ingredient of life – water – is undergoing a profound change.

On 28th February, key individuals from Government, industry, academia and consumer bodies met to discuss the major issues facing water use in a meeting organised with the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Met Office at the Science Museum.

In opening remarks, the chairman of the Environment Agency Lord Smith said that to become sustainable the country needed to improve water resilience – the balance of demands from homes, industry, agriculture and the need to protect ecosystems – and achieve a reduction in average demand from the current level of around 150 litres per person per day to around 130. The country must also continue to improve flood resilience: in the past 10 months, 8000 properties in England and Wales flooded but 200,000 were protected by defences built over the prior 30 years.

Finally, he said that the nation needs to get more adept at planning for uncertainty.

Chaired by Ian Blatchford, Director of the Science Museum, five key themes emerged from the round table discussion:

1) Our relationship with water has altered. Long term environmental trends that result from climate change mean that although average annual rainfall is roughly the same, the intensity and variability have increased. There are other pressures on the water supply, caused by the continued reliance on Victorian sewers, demographic trends and the resulting impact of construction, such as covering tracts of land with paving.

2) Science is critical. We require cutting edge science to understand issues ranging from climate change to the behaviour of surface water, which recently leapfrogged rivers as the primary flooding threat, when most warning systems are calibrated by river behaviour. However, much of this science is hedged in uncertainties – such as the limitations of medium range forecasting – and there are huge challenges in conveying them to the public.

3) Collaboration. To deal with the change in Britain’s water, collaborations need to come in different domains: between industry and universities in centres of excellence; multi-agency partnerships of the kind already working successfully between the Environment Agency and Met Office in flood warning; and between the water industry and local communities and councils on local solutions, such as reliance on wetland areas to absorb floodwaters. This relationship has to be a partnership, not paternalistic. These collaborations will not always need to bring about innovation but simply bring things together better. There are also issues finding funding support for applied science. Research councils tend to focus on strategic science and water companies tend to focus on practical research. Examples of collaborations between water industry leaders and universities are emerging, though more are desirable. The UK could also learn from the experience of countries such as Australia, where there is expertise in drought management.

4) Communication. Water is crucial for existence and yet, paradoxically, the consumer needs a better understanding of the role it plays in everyday life, through a more obvious link between the cost, value and uses of water. One challenge is encouraging a community take action in advance of a drought, in preemptive measures that can delay the need for draconian measures, rather than in reactive measures when supplies run short. There are technologies, such as telemetry, which can provide more rapid warning to communities of flood risks, and smart meters, which are more engaging. Another communication issue is to both understand the way consumers respond, whether to warnings or tariffs, and to find the best way for institutions to earn their trust. Finally, the UK is a world leader in many areas and, rather than continuing to do brilliant work modestly, it should be bolder in conveying its successes to the public and globally, since water resources are a planetary issue.

5) Skills. Understanding of the behaviour of local water has moved away from local authorities and, as emphasised in point 3) this has to be re-established in new collaborations, which are more focused on catchment areas than political boundaries. Another issue is maintaining the experience of ‘flood veterans’ who have dealt with earlier emergencies, such as the 2007 floods that triggered Sir Michael Pitt’s review.

Roger Highfield is the Director of External Affairs at the Science Museum Group.

View of the LHCb cavern

X-citing news from CERN

Dr. Harry Cliff, a Physicist working on the LHCb experiment and the first Science Museum Fellow of Modern Science, writes about a new discovery at CERN for our blog. A new Science Museum exhibition about the Large Hadron Collider will open in November 2013, showcasing particle detectors and the stories of scientific discoveries.

In 2003 physicists at the Belle experiment in Japan reported they had discovered a brand new particle.

Adding a new entry to the big book of particle physics is certainly satisfying, but not usually cause for much excitement. The discovery of the Higgs-like boson last year was an exception. After all, hundreds of particles have shown up in experiments over the last century. So many in fact, that they were often referred to, rather derisively, as a “zoo”.

The Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Image Credit: CERN

But the particle found at Belle was different.

It didn’t fit neatly into the picture painted by theory and there was no clear explanation for its origin. It was a bit of an enigma, and earned a suitably enigmatic name: the X particle.

Professor Val Gibson from the University of Cambridge told me that she and her colleagues “have been mesmerized” about the identify this mysterious particle for the last ten years.

The Particle Zoo

The vast majority of the particles that make up the particle zoo are not fundamental; in other words they are made up of smaller things and these things are fundamental particles called quarks. Six different types of quark have been discovered and they can form a large number of different combinations, explaining the particle zoo.

However, quarks only bind together in very specific ways. Two ways in fact. One option is a ménage à trois known as a baryon. Baryons include the proton and the neutron, the building blocks of the atomic nucleus. The other option is where a quark and an antiquark couple up to form a meson.

The X didn’t fit easily into either of these pictures. This generated a lot of excitement and there was speculation as to whether it could be an ordinary meson, or some new exotic combination involving four quarks, a tetraquark, or a “molecule” of two mesons stuck together.

If this were true it would be the first time such an exotic state had been definitively seen in nature.

The only way to tell would be to measure the quantum numbers of the X, three properties that give a clue to its internal structure. This hadn’t been possible, until now.

Exciting, Exotic X

Amid the hundreds of trillions of collisions generated by the Large Hadron Collider over the past three years physicists at the LHCb experiment (the experiment I work on) managed to pick out about 300 X particles.

View of the LHCb cavern

View of the LHCb cavern. Image credit: CERN

This week, they presented the first full measurement of the quantum numbers of the X, at a conference at La Thuile in Italy. The result was emphatic – the X is not a meson, it is something altogether more exotic.

LHCb physicist Dr Matt Needham told me that “this measurement is a great step forward in understanding this mysterious X” and a “very exciting result”. However, there is still work to be done.

“The real nature (of the X) is still unclear”. Whether it’s a tetraquark, meson molecule or something else entirely must now be determined.

His colleagues at LHCb will now search for signs of the X decaying in new ways to try to separate out the various different options. Although the Large Hadron Collider has now shut down for two years physicists at LHCb will have no shortage of data to work with. An unprecedented sample was collected during 2012, corresponding to 180 trillion collisions, each one producing hundreds of particles.

The true nature of this enigmatic particle may soon be known. Whatever the result, we have now had our first glimpse of an altogether new state of matter. Finding out exactly what the X is will bring us deeper understanding of nature’s fundamental building blocks and the forces that bind them together.

Visitors to the Science Museum will have a chance to get up close and personal with the LHC at a new exhibition opening in November 2013. The exhibition will showcase real pieces of the LHC, including an intricate particle detector from the heart of the LHCb experiment.

De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) by Copernicus, 1543. Image credit: Science and Society Picture Library

There’s something about February

It is remarkable to think that some of the greatest scientific thinkers who have ever lived, the likes of Darwin, Galileo, Copernicus and Boltzmann, were all born in early February.

Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, born on 20 February 1844, is remembered for his work in the development of statistical mechanics, used to predict how the properties of atoms can determine the behaviour of matter. Boltzmann’s pioneering scientific contributions to kinetic theory – which described the speed of atoms in a gas – came at a time when many scientists disbelieved an atom’s very existence.

Over half a millennia ago (540 years ago yesterday in fact), Nicolaus Copernicus was born in a small medieval town in Poland. Copernicus would go on to fundamentally challenge our sense of place in the cosmos, publishing his ideas of the heliocentric universe just two months before his death in May 1543. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, along with many other objects from the history of astronomy, are on display in our Cosmos and Culture exhibition.

De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) by Copernicus, 1543. Image credit: Science and Society Picture Library

Copernicus’s ideas were supported by Italian astronomer and mathematician Galileo Galilei, born 15 February 1564. After failing to complete his studies in medicine at Pisa, Galileo turned his attention to mathematics. Experiments in 1604 with rolling balls down an inclined plane, led Galileo to deduce the law of falling bodies and show that the speed with which bodies fall is independent of their weight.

Siderius Nuncius (The Starry Messenger) by Galileo. Image credit: Science and Society Picture Library

In 1609, Galileo reinvented the refracting telescope leading to numerous astronomical findings, including the discovery of four moons of Jupiter, which he published in Siderius Nuncius (The Starry Messenger) – on display in our Cosmos and Culture exhibition. Galileo’s support for Copernicus’s view of a sun-centred solar system brought him into direct opposition with the church and led in 1633 to his imprisonment under house arrest.

Also born in early February were two Naturalists, Charles Darwin (born 12 Feb 1809) and Sir Joseph Banks (13 Feb 1742), who travelled the world – with Banks joining Captain Cook’s voyage to the South Pacific on board HMS Endeavour and Darwin sailing on HMS Beagle – identifying new species (1300 in in the case of Joseph Banks) and exploring geological features and plant and animal life across the globe.

Sir Joseph Banks, British explorer and naturalist. Image credit: Science and Society Picture Library

Outside of his travels to far-off lands, including Newfoundland, Tahiti and New Zealand, Banks was known for his promotion of science. On his return to Britain, Banks wrote detailed descriptions of the people and places he had encountered, and later become honorary director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and a Trustee of the British Museum, before being elected President of the Royal Society in 1778.

Charles Darwin joined a five-year scientific expedition on HMS Beagle, studying a vast array of plants, animals and geological wonders. On his return in 1836, he began to think in earnest about the mechanisms that had generated such variety in nature.

Charles Darwin, English naturalist, c 1870s. Image Credit: Science & Society Picture Library

Influenced by the thinking of Thomas Malthus, Darwin developed his theory of evolution through natural selection over the next two decades, only publishing his work after learning that another naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, had developed similar ideas. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection went on to transform the way the natural world was understood across the world.

Portrait of a woman looking thoughtful, c 1950.

What *should* we be worried about?

By Pippa Murray and Will Stanley

Ask most people what is worrying them and their answer is often personal. Ask leading thinkers and you could end up worried yourself.  The latter was put to the biggest science minds for this year’s annual question – What should we be worried about? – from the good people at Edge.

Each year, this online literary salon poses a new question – previous examples include ‘What is your favourite deep, elegant, or beautiful explanation?’ and ‘What will change everything?’ – and requests that each contributor responds with a scientifically informed argument. The aim is to step away from the pressing news of the day, and share something new and thought provoking.

Portrait of a woman looking thoughtful, c 1950.

Portrait of a woman looking thoughtful, c 1950
Credit © Photography Advertising Archive/National Media Museum / Science & Society Picture Library

With this in mind it seems right to start with Larry Sanger’s essay, the co-founder of Wikipedia and Citizendium, which looks at the rise of internet silos. In Sager’s opinion, these online websites for news or opinion breed hostility and single mindedness by hosting ‘objectively unsupportable views that stroke the egos of their members,’ that make us ‘overconfident and uncritical’ about the world around us.

Continuing on the theme of modern technologies, Nicholas HumphreyEmeritus School Professor at the London School of Economics, raises his concerns on fast knowledge. While many view today’s easy access to smartphones, search engines and the information that they provide us at the click of a button as a good thing, Humphrey argues the opposite. He states that nowadays, ‘everyone finds themselves going to the same places, when it’s the arrival and not the journey that matters, when nothing whatever memorable happens along on the way, I worry that we end up, despite our extraordinary range of experience, with less to say.’

In contrast to Sanger and Humphrey, Simon Baron-Cohen dissects an age old debate, that of C.P. Snow’s ‘Two Cultures’ from 1969. In his essay, Baron-Cohen recognizes the efforts of literary agents and publishers to make science more accessible, particularly to non-scientists, but states that in other fields of science, such as sex differences in the brain, these two cultures remain separated by a deep chasm.

Among these 140 contributors is one from our own Director of External Affairs, Roger Highfield, who argues the need for more science heroes to step forward, stating that ‘When it comes to selling the magic of science we need to accept that the most powerful way is through heroic stories.’ Highfield worries about the decline of scientific heroes, because their function as ‘viral transmitters of science in the crowded realm of ideas’ is of vital importance. He concludes that scientific literacy is vital for a modern democracy to function.

Other contributors, such as Steven Pinker, take an alternative approach, eliminating some of the problems that people fixate on. In Pinker’s case he looks at the causes of war, suggesting new and more relevant approaches to these worries. Kevin Kelly chose to turn the focus of a well known topic on its head, sharing the lesser-known worry of under-population.

And while reading all these essays may lead you to worry about many more things than you usually do, a common theme of these essays is the importance of sharing knowledge and challenging the status quo in today’s society, which is not such a bad idea after all.

Read more of what you should be worying about here

One of 12 cognitive tests which look at memory, reasoning, attention and planning abilities

Biggest intelligence test exposes the limits of IQ

By Adam Hampshire, Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario

To what extent are some people smarter than others? For a century, psychologists have believed that we can boil differences in cognitive skill down to a single number known as an Intelligence Quotient (IQ). But does one number really represent an individual’s ability to remember, to reason and to think? The answer is an emphatic no, according to the results of a landmark experiment conducted on many tens of thousands of people with the help of Roger Highfield of the Science Museum Group.

[yframe url='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vPVxAxzhvDA']

With Roger and my colleague Adrian Owen, who works with me at the University of Western Ontario, I describe our findings today in the journal Neuron.

Our  attempt to answer this simple question dates back more than five years, when Roger encountered work that I had conducted with Adrian at the Medical Research Council in Cambridge on a reliable way to carry out cognitive tests online so we could monitor rehabilitation after brain injury, the effect of smart drug trials and so on.

Roger wondered if we could use this test to carry out a mass intelligence test. Drawing on earlier data from brain scans,  Adrian and I came up with a series of tests which we knew would trigger activity in as much of the brain’s anatomy as possible, combining the fewest tasks to cover the broadest range of cognitive skills.

In half an hour, respondents had to complete 12 cognitive tests which look at memory, reasoning, attention and planning abilities, as well as a fill in a survey about their background and lifestyle habits (Roger and Adrian describe the tests here).

One of 12 cognitive tests which look at memory, reasoning, attention and planning abilities

We expected a few hundred responses. But thanks to articles in The Daily Telegraph, Discovery and New Scientist, 110,000 people took part from every corner of the world. Once I had used statistical methods to analyse more than a million data points on a representative group of around 45,000, I found that when a wide range of cognitive abilities are probed, the variations in performance can only be explained with at least three distinct components: short-term memory; reasoning; and finally, a verbal component.

No one component, or ‘IQ’, explained all the variations revealed by the tests.

To bolster our results, Adrian and I used a $5 million brain scanner, which relies on a technique known as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to study 16 participants as they carried out all 12 tests.  We found that each of the three different factors identified by the analysis did indeed correspond to a different brain network: these differences in cognitive ability map onto three distinct circuits in the brain.

The results disprove once and for all the idea that a single measure of intelligence, such as ‘IQ’, is enough to capture all of the differences in cognitive ability that we see between people. Instead, several different brain circuits contribute to intelligence, each with its own unique capacity. A person may well be good in one of these areas, but they are just as likely to be bad in the other two.

Because so many people took part, the results also provided a wealth of information about how factors such as age, gender and the tendency to play computer games influence our brain function.

[yframe url='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KBG6LCqj5JY']

For example, people who regularly played computer games did perform significantly better in terms of both reasoning and short-term memory. Smokers performed poorly on the short-term memory and the verbal factors, while people who frequently suffer from anxiety performed badly on the short-term memory factor in particular.

We are now launching a new version of the tests here. To ensure we do not bias the results of the new tests, we can’t say much about the agenda other than that there are many more fascinating questions about the true nature of intelligence that we want to answer.

Adam Hampshire works at the Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.

Jennifer photographed with the new trophy for the Queen Elizabeth prize for engineering.

Queen Elizabeth Trophy Competition Winner Announced

This tree-like structure that symbolises the growth of engineering has been chosen as the trophy for a new global prize. The Queen Elizabeth Prize is considered to be the Nobel prize for engineering and yesterday the winner of the trophy competition was announced by Ian Blatchford, Director of the Science Museum Group.

Jennifer photographed with the new trophy for the Queen Elizabeth prize for engineering.

The prestigious award was given to Jennifer Leggett, an A Level student from Sevenoaks in Kent, who was the brains behind the winning design. Jennifer fought off tough competition from a shortlist of ten young designers, aged between 16 and 22, to win the prize and will have the unique opportunity to see her trophy presented to the winner of the Queen Elizabeth Prize at the inaugural ceremony in March 2013. Following the announcement the delighted Jennifer thanked the judges and congratulated her fellow competitors commenting on the quality and range of all the designs in the room.

3 of the 5 judges photographed with Jennifer Leggett and her trophy. From left: Ian Blatchford, Director of the Science Museum Group; Yewande Akinola, Engineer; Jennifer Leggett; Nick Serota, Director of the Tate.

The panel, who had the tough job of selecting the trophy, consisted of: Science Museum Director and Chair of judges, Ian Blatchford; architect Dame Zaha Hadid; Director of the Tate, Sir Nicholas Serota; Design Museum Director, Deyan Sudjic; and Engineer, Yewande Akinola. During the judging competitors were asked to explain the inspiration behind their design and what material would best fit their trophy but, on announcing the winner, Ian admitted that the judges had to add two additional criteria to help them whittle it down and come to a decision – whether the Queen would take pleasure from handing the prize and how the winner of the QE prize might feel when collecting their award. The winning trophy was described as “jewel-like” and was praised for its strong design which reflected the creativity, power and importance of engineering in the world today.

Reflecting on the competition Ian Blatchford said, “We set a challenge for young people to come up with an iconic trophy design that best embodies the wonder of modern engineering and reflects the merging worlds of science, art, design and engineering. Jennifer has shown real imagination and talent – all the judges were enormously impressed with her design.”

At the awards ceremony at the Science Museum’s Smith Centre, all ten of the shortlisted designers saw their trophy brought to life having had their design transformed into 3D printed prototypes by BAE Systems using the latest in Additive Layer Manufacturing technology. These replicas illustrated the intricate designs of each of the trophies which varied from Alexander Goff’s ‘Flowers and Thorns’ a towering structure of petals and sharp thorns, to Gemma Pollock’s ‘Bright Perceptions’ that centred around a double helix, and Dominic Jacklin’s ‘The Nest’ a vortex of geometric shapes which was concieved to represent the ubiquity of engineering in our lives.

The QE prize is a new £1 million global engineering prize, launched in 2012 which rewards and celebrates an individual (or up to three people) responsible for a ground-breaking innovation in engineering that has been of global benefit to humanity. The first winner of the QE prize will be announced in March 2013 and will be presented with Jennifer’s trophy by the Queen in a ceremony at Buckingham Palace.

Motorola 8800X

SMS turns 20 with a touch of festive cheer

By Charlotte Connelly, Content Developer – Making Modern Communications

Every time we invent a new communications device, somebody has to decide what the first every message will be. Sometimes this is planned in advance and has a weighty meaning. For example, when the first American telegraph line was officially opened in 1844, the first message sent by Samuel Morse asked: What hath God wrought?

On other occasions, the inventors of the technology were taken by surprise, such as Alexander Graham Bell. His first words were less majestic: Mr Watson, come here, I want to see you.

So, 20 years ago today, when 22-year-old British engineer, Neil Papworth, was trying out Vodafone’s new SMS system out for the first time, what did he send? Well, as it was nearing Christmas, there was really only one choice: MERRY CHRISTMAS

Motorola 8800X

This phone, the Motorola 8800X, was launched in 1992. The same year that the first SMS message was sent. Source: Science Museum

The first commercial SMS (short message service) system went into operation in 1993, after several years of tinkering with various text based messaging services. Mobile phone companies didn’t rush to get text messaging out there because they didn’t think anybody would be interested in sending such short messages.

In a way they were proved right, because it wasn’t until the late 1990′s when the first pre-pay phones came into use that texting really took off. Lots of users found texting to be a cheap way of sending a snippet of information, and by 2002 we were sending 2 million texts an hour in the UK alone.

Nokia 3310

You might recognise the Nokia 3310, it was launched in 2000 at around the time that sending text messages was really getting big. Source: Science Museum / Science and Society

The number of texts being sent around the world is still growing, but as our phones become the centre of our communications world, with social networks and email as well as texting and calling, the humble text message is going to have to work hard to stay in use.