Grand Designs For Information Age

Nick Rolls, Design Project Leader at Universal Design Studio, reflects on the design of the Science Museum’s new Information Age gallery.

Artist's impression of the Information Age gallery. Image credit: Universal Design Studio

Artist’s impression of the Information Age gallery. Image credit: Universal Design Studio

In early 2011, we were commissioned to work on the Science Museum’s new Information Age gallery.

From the outset, we knew this project would create a special challenge. With an impressive range of assets –  200 years of inventions, 800 unique objects and a vast gallery space measuring 2,500m2, this would be a unique gallery within the Science Museum.

One of the biggest challenges we faced was organising the huge empty space into a navigable gallery whilst giving each object and story a platform on which to shine.

We started with the largest and most impressive object of all – the aerial tuning coil from Rugby Radio Station, which we decided to place at the heart of the gallery.

Made from timber and webs of cables, this incredible object looks almost primitive in construction. This ambiguity made it a great tool for us to draw visitors into the centre of the gallery and make them question their preconceptions of modern communications. It is a world away from the common communication devices that spring to mind – mobile phones, micro-chips and digiboxes.

We learnt that the tuning coil was housed underneath a copper shroud – we think to dissipate heat and prevent the timber structure from igniting. This provided us with a material that resonated with the object’s history and a warm, reflective surface for the display. The coil is located where visitors can learn about the transmitter, signal and receiver.

From the centre you can see that the gallery is divided into six networks – each one telling stories from a specific section of communication technology. Placed around the outsides of the gallery, similar to the idea of a town square or plaza, we placed large double height display cases. These display structures are designed to house a vast array of objects.

Floorplan of the Information Age gallery. Image credit: Universal Design Studio

Floorplan of the Information Age gallery. Image credit: Universal Design Studio

These display structures serve several purposes. One function is to hold up the elevated walkway that encircles the gallery. More importantly, they allow visitors to engage with the incredible objects and stories told in each of the six networks. For this reason, they became known as storyboxes. To provide a varied experience, both a producer and a ‘voice’ were assigned to a storybox for each network, creating an installation of their conception.

The sheer quantity of objects on display within the gallery required meticulous planning of the space.

Stories with large numbers of objects fill showcases, which in turn create smaller spaces and routes throughout the gallery. A key concern was to ensure visitors knew where their attention should be focussed, especially in a gallery without a prescribed route.

We crafted a space that used solid forms and open apertures within the gallery, providing clear groups of objects along with vistas from one section to another.

Lastly, we designed a large encircling walkway that loops around the gallery. We introduced this to provide an overview of the space and an alternative perspective of the gallery. We felt it was important for visitors to understand the context of each story within the scheme of the gallery – allowing them to connect objects from one end of the space to the other.

Fundamentally, this is a gallery about incredible objects, people and stories. The format of the gallery plays a supporting role to these awe-inspiring exhibits. We hope visitors will enjoy experiencing the gallery through the space we have designed.

The Information Age gallery will be welcoming visitors from 25 October 2014. For more information visit sciencemuseum.org.uk/informationage.

Life on the Exchange – Stories From The Hello Girls

Sunday 5 October marks the 54th anniversary of the Enfield Exchange switching from manual to automatic exchange. To celebrate, Jen Kavanagh, Audience Engagement Manager, spoke to telephone operators from the 1950s and 1960s who shared their stories for the new Information Age gallery.

Today when we pick up the telephone, the digital automated system makes connecting a call quick and simple. But before this automatic system was introduced, telephone exchange operators had to help us on our way.

Manual Telephone Exchange Enfield. October 1960. Image credit: Science Museum / SSPL

Manual Telephone Exchange Enfield. October 1960. Image credit: Science Museum / SSPL

In the first half of the 20th century, women worked across the country, connecting calls and helping people get in touch with one another. The work required concentration, patience and an excellent manner, but the community created within these exchanges was fun and social once shifts had ended.

Women working on the Exchange at Enfield. Image credit: Science Museum / SSPL

Women working on the Exchange at Enfield. Image credit: Science Museum / SSPL

One of the last manual telephone exchanges was based at Enfield, north London. The Enfield Exchange’s switch from manual to automatic exchange, marked the end of an era in communication history. A section of the Enfield Exchange, donated to the Science Museum by BT, forms a part of the Museum’s collection, and will go on display in the new Information Age gallery.

To bring this amazing piece of history to life, we spoke to women who worked as telephone exchange operators in the 1950s and early 1960s, recording their stories through oral history interviews.

These former ‘hello girls’ gave their insight into how the exchange worked and what the job of an operator involved, but also shared wonderful stories about the friends they made and the social life they experienced once they’d clocked off.

A switchboard from the Enfield Exchange, which will go on display in the Science Musuem's new Information Age gallery. Image credit: Science Museum

A switchboard from the Enfield Exchange, donated to the Science Museum by BT, which will go on display in the new Information Age gallery. Image credit: Science Museum

One of these former operators, Jean Singleton, shared her thoughts on what made a good telephone operator, even if she didnít feel she was one!

‘How do I know? [Laughs] I wasn’t a good telephone operator, I was a naughty telephone operator! Well, first of all, you had to have a nice speaking voice, you couldn’t go there if you were a Cockney, speaking in a Cockney way, or a Northern way, you had to speak the Queen’s English, or King’s English as it was then. I suppose I had a decent enough voice. You had to be polite, and the customer sort of was always right, more or less, you know, you didn’t swear back at somebody if they swore at you, you weren’t allowed to do that sort of thing. If you found you were in trouble with a person on the telephone, you just passed them over to your supervisor, and they would deal with it.’

A close up view of the Enfield switchboard. Image credit: Science Museum.

A close up view of the Enfield switchboard. Image credit: Science Museum.

Another former operator, Rose Young, talked about some of the kit that was used whilst working on the exchange.

‘The first headsets were very heavy, you’d have a mouthpiece that came up in front of you on a plastic piece that had a tape on that you hung round your neck. And then the headpiece was like a metal band with a very heavy earpiece, you had one ear free so that you could hear what was going on around you and one that you covered, that covered your ear, but they were very heavy.’

Visitors to Information Age will have the opportunity to hear more from these incredible women through an interactive audio experience which will sit alongside the original section of the Enfield Exchange. We’ll just have to make sure we edit the cheeky bits!

Discover more about these stories when the Information Age gallery opens on Saturday 25 October.

How Mathematics Inspired the Writers of The Simpsons and Futurama

Pete Dickinson, Head of Comms, reflects on a global premiere and the mathematics hidden within the Simpsons and Futurama.

Leading lights of the Simpsons and Futurama, Al Jean and David X. Cohen, served up a sell-out event at the Science Museum that danced effortlessly like a Simpsons episode between scintillating story-telling, one-liners and hard-core mathematics.

QI creator John Lloyd, CEO of Innovate UK Iain Gray, and mathematics populariser Alex Bellos were among those lured to the museum for an evening of maths and mirth, but it was 12-year-old Toby Hawkins whose question precipitated the eveningís global premiere.

Toby wondered whether we could hope for a Simpsons and Futurama crossover episode if anyone should prove that P does not equal NP and thus solve a major unresolved problem in computer science. In response we were treated to the first ever airing of part of a ‘Simpsorama’ crossover show that will see Bender travelling back in time in an attempt to kill Bart so worldwide disaster can be averted.

Al Jean and David X. Cohen discussing maths and The Simpsons at the Science Museum. Credit: Science Museum

Al Jean and David X. Cohen discussing maths and The Simpsons at the Science Museum. Credit: Science Museum

The evening was expertly compered by Simon Singh, author of The Simpsons and their Mathematical Secrets. He invited Al Jean and David X. Cohen to explain how and why they have regularly embellished episodes of both series with references to degree-level maths such as Fermatís Last Theorem or the Taxicab number.

Al Jean, who worked on the first series and is now executive producer of The Simpsons, and studied maths at Harvard, credited serendipity; many of the writers had scientific backgrounds. He went on to suggest that mathematics and comedy writing demand the same kind of thinking and a similar, sometimes obsessive, quest for the perfect solution.

We heard how, in the early 90s, the writers faxed a mathematician working at NASA to ensure the accuracy of a line by store owner Apu Nahasapeemapetilon when he boasts ‘I can recite pi to forty thousand places. The last digit is 1.’

David X Cohen, creator of Futurama who happens to have a computer science degree from UC Berkeley, hinted at a more serious purpose. Lamenting the way entertainment goes out of its way to make maths seem boring, he said ‘part of what I think about when we do Futurama is let’s make it fun, let’s not make it scary’.

Earlier, Science Museum Deputy Director Jean Franczyk had provided the context for the evening with a reminder of the Science Museumís ambitious plans for a new mathematics gallery, made possible by the generosity of the David and Claudia Harding Foundation. By combining the curation of David Rooney, the creativity of Zaha Hadid Architects and the museum’s beautiful maths collection, Jean predicted a gallery that would delight all, including the ‘intrepid and maths-loving Lisa Simpson’.

The event has inspired a wide range of media interest, on the importance of Lisa as a mathematical role model, the links between mathematics and comedy, along with mentions on Radio 4′s Loose Ends and Radio 1′s Nick Grimshaw Show.

All clips from The Simpsons and Futurama were kindly provided by Twentieth Century Fox Television.

Global Telephone Calls For All

David Hay, Head of Heritage & Archives at BT, reflects on the story of the first transatlantic telephone cable, TAT1, which opened 58 years ago today (25 September). The story will be covered in the Science Museum’s new Information Age gallery, which opens on 25 October.

Programme for the inauguration of the cable, 25 Sep 1956. Image credit: Courtesy of BT Heritage & Archives

Programme for the inauguration of the cable, 25 Sep 1956. Image credit: Courtesy of BT Heritage & Archives

When the first transatlantic telephone cable was launched on 25 September 1956, it was hailed as the start of the modern era of global communication. It was designed to link both the United States and Canada to the UK, with facilities for some circuits to be leased to other West European countries too.

The cable  provided 30 telephone circuits to the US and six to Canada. Most were for communication with the UK, the rest were connected through London to give direct access to Europe.

Transatlantic telephone cable operations, Oban, Scotland, 1855. Image credit: Courtesy of BT Heritage & Archives

Transatlantic telephone cable operations, Oban, Scotland, 1855. Image credit: Courtesy of BT Heritage & Archives

Undertaken by BT’s predecessor, the Post Office Engineering Department, along with the American Telegraph and Telephone Company, Bell Telephone Laboratories and the Canadian Overseas Telecommunications Corporation, the £12.5 million project took three years to complete. During this time the system was planned, manufactured and installed, which required developing new techniques for placing cable in deep waters.

Men pulling first segment ashore at Clarenville, Newfoundland,  Canada, 1955. Image credit: Courtesy of BT Heritage & Archives

Men pulling first segment ashore at Clarenville, Newfoundland, Canada, 1955. Image credit: Courtesy of BT Heritage & Archives

Telegraph links between the UK and the USA had been in existence from the middle of the previous century, but 1927 saw the first commercial radiotelephone service between the two countries. Initially 2,000 calls per year were made across the Atlantic, but the cost was prohibitive – in 1928 the basic rate for calls to New York was £9 for just three minutes.

It was only with the development of new equipment, such as coaxial cables with polyethylene insulation, carrier frequency equipment and broadband submerged repeaters, that transatlantic telephony by cable could be realised. These new technologies were developed just before and during World War Two. One key Post Office input was the development of subsea repeaters which were robust and reliable enough for areas around the coast and mainland Europe.

Cable operations at Clarenville, Newfoundland,  preparing to bring cable ashore, 1955. Image credit: Courtesy of BT Heritage & Archives

Cable operations at Clarenville, Newfoundland, preparing to bring cable ashore, 1955. Image credit: Courtesy of BT Heritage & Archives

Apart from the short shore ends, the whole of the transatlantic telephone cable was laid by the Post Office cable ship Monarch. It was the only such ship that was capable of carrying the 1,500 nautical miles of cable which had to be laid in one piece across the deepest part of the Atlantic, between Oban in Scotland and Clarenville, Newfoundland. The cable then crossed over the the Cabot Strait to Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia.

Cable route map from Oban to Clarenville and topographic diagram of the ocean floor. Image credit: Courtesy of BT Heritage & Archives

Cable route map from Oban to Clarenville and topographic diagram of the ocean floor. Image credit: Courtesy of BT Heritage & Archives

At the inaugural ceremony at  Lancaster House in London on 25 September 1956, the service was opened by the Postmaster General, who spoke to the Chairman of AT&T calling from New York, and to the Canadian Minister of Transport.

During its first year of service, TAT1 carried twice as many calls as the radio circuits had done in a year – about 220,000 calls between Britain and the United States, and 75,000 between Britain and Canada – generating £2 million to be shared between the three countries.

In 1956, the first transatlantic telephone cable was regarded as a major technological achievement, not least as a base for future research and improvements. It laid the path for further developments such as sophisticated digital fibre optic transatlantic cables, which can pass tens of thousands of calls simultaneously.

Sectioned submerged repeater for TAT-1 the first trans-Atlantic telephone cable, designed at the Post Office Research Station at Dollis Hill, made by Standard Telephones and Cables Limited, Woolwich, London, England, 1956. Image credit: Science Museum

Sectioned submerged repeater for TAT-1 the first trans-Atlantic telephone cable. Credit: Science Museum

BT is excited to be Lead Principal Sponsor of the new Science Museum’s Information Age gallery, where the story of TAT1 and transatlantic communications is told. Our purpose as a company is to use the power of communications to make a better world. We have been involved in every significant development in telecommunications since the birth of the technology in 1837 with the invention of the electric telegraph in the UK

It was important for us to be able to support Information Age in telling the stories of how communications technology has changed the world for the better. And we are delighted to have donated so many of the objects on display in the gallery from our own heritage collection.

Information Age opens to the public at the Science Museum in London on 25 October 2014. For more details visit sciencemuseum.org.uk/informationage.

Visitor Inventions – Future Fashion

As it’s London Fashion Week, we take a look at the future fashion creations from visitors to our Launchpad gallery.

You may be forgiven to think that this season’s must-have fashion are found on the catwalks of London, Paris or Milan (and you may very well be right!). But this hasn’t stopped our wonderfully imaginative visitors from designing their own creations whilst in the Launchpad gallery. Whatever your fashion sense; from inflatable boat dresses to telescopic shoes, there’s a bit of something for everyone.

Click to enlarge the images.

 

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky: Grandfather of Soviet Space Travel

Ulrika Danielsson, Content Coordinator for the Cosmonauts exhibition, reflects on the life of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the grandfather of Soviet space travel, 157 years after his birth.    

Look closely at this picture from the Russian module of the International Space Station and you will see two images of a man with a white beard. Known as the grandfather of Soviet space travel, this man dreamt of international space stations as early as the 1890s and cosmonauts still pay homage to him today. Born on this day (17 September) in 1857, the man’s name is Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.

Aboard the International Space Station. Credit: NASA

Aboard the International Space Station. Credit: NASA

Tsiolkovsky’s contribution to the science of space travel is diverse and astonishing, with his work ranging from robust science to science fiction. Citing the work of Jules Verne as a personal  inspiration, Tsiolkovsky believed science fiction was a valuable tool in advancing and popularising  serious scientific ideas. Subsequently, Tsiolkovksy himself produced three sci-fi novels, and towards the end of his life acted as technical advisor on the production of the Soviet sci-fi film ‘Cosmic Voyage’ (1936).

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. Credit: Archive of Russian Academy of Sciences

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. Credit: Archive of Russian Academy of Sciences

However, Tsiolkovksy’s prominence in the field of space travel is due to his work on the mathematics and mechanics of  how to reach outer space. He famously calculated the possibility of doing so by using liquid-propellant rockets. In addition to developing concepts on launch and orbital dynamics, Tsiolkovksy considered devices that would allow a human being to survive in space, including space suits and space food.

Drawing by Tsiolkovksy for the film ‘Cosmic Voyage’ showing a cosmonaut exiting a rocket via an airlock, 1932. Credit: Archive of Russian Academy of Science

Drawing by Tsiolkovksy for the film ‘Cosmic Voyage’ showing a cosmonaut exiting a rocket via an airlock, 1932. Credit: Archive of Russian Academy of Science

Tsiolkovsky’s achievements are even more extraordinary in light of his circumstances. Growing up in a large family of limited means and suffering from severely impaired hearing after contracting scarlet fever as a child, Tsiolkovsky was self-educated. After a brief period in Moscow where he taught himself mathematics, physics, astronomy and chemistry using public libraries, Tsiolkovsky returned to the provinces to become a school teacher and start a family.

Fleeing a bleak existence, he immersed himself in a world of inventions, struggling to get his work published – he was essentially founding a new field of science – but doggedly self-publishing when possible and gaining local followers intrigued by his ideas of metallic air ships, extra-terrestrial life and the colonization of other planets.

Tsiolkovsky’s work was driven by the idea that space travel would allow the human race to abandon Earth in the face of overpopulation and natural catastrophes, thereby securing the continued existence of humanity. He envisioned a species of super humans, a form of eugenics drawing on the likes of Nietzsche that does not tend to sit comfortably with those eulogizing his life and work in modern times. These super humans would use Earth as a source of energy and raw materials and cosmic evolution would eventually allow them to shed their physical “shells” and develop into energy, becoming immortal and boundless.

Despite receiving minor recognition from the state following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Tsiolkovsky’s situation remained relatively unchanged until he neared the end of his life in the 1930s when he was officially hailed as a hero.

Following the launch of the Soviet space programme in the 1950s, he went on to achieve cult status. To this day, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky remains a key inspirational and spiritual figure in the cosmonautical movement, alongside Chief Designer Sergei Korolev and the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin.

Discover Tsiolkovsky’s story and the dramatic history of the Russian space programme in our new exhibition, Cosmonauts: Birth of the Space Age, which opens soon.

Drayson Racing Car

Formula E: The Future of Racing

Pippa Hough, Assistant Content Developer in our Contemporary Science team, explores the new Formula E racing series.

Last month, we invited engineers from the Power Electronics Group to the Science Museum to share their latest research with our visitors. They are working on wireless charging systems to power up electric car batteries, and with them came the Drayson Racer, the fastest lightweight electric car in the world. This beautiful, green piece of precision engineering is fast; it broke records at 205mph and can go 0 to 60 in 3 seconds.

This week super speedy cars, much like the Drayson racer, will take part in Formula E; the first ever fully electric racing series, starting off in Beijing. The cars in Formula E aren’t quite as fast as the one we had on display, but with top speeds of 140mph it will definitely be entertaining to watch.

Drayson Racer, the fasted lightweight electric car in the world. Credit: Science Museum

Drayson Racer, the fasted lightweight electric car in the world. Credit: Science Museum

There are a few aspects of the Formula E that make it, in my opinion, the best type of racing there is:

Car Swapping

One of the major issues of electric cars is battery life. The racing cars used in Formula E can’t be charged quick enough at the pit stops so the drivers swap to a fully charged car. Given it’s a race the drivers need to hop out and into the other car within a minute. I think it provides an bonus ‘obstacle course’ like challenge that petrol racing really lacks.

Exotic Locations

Yes Formula 1 has exotic location, but Formula E has raised the game. The races will be in the heart of some of the most stunning capital cities in the world. Starting in the Olympic park in Beijing the championship will travel round to 10 cities including Berlin, Buenos Aires, Miami, and finishing up in central London in June 2015.

Futuristic Sounding

Electric cars engines are virtually silent. There’ll be no need for ear plugs while watching and given the city centre locations the races won’t be bothering the neighbours as much as petrol racing might. The sound Formula E cars make when racing has been described as anything from eerie to futuristic. They’re so quiet the engineers have to be warned with an air horn before the car come into the pit stops so they can get out of the way in time.

Fanboost

There’s virtually no interaction with the drivers for fans of racing, especially compared to other sports. The drivers can’t hear you cheering, not until they’re no the podium and by that time your encouragements don’t make any difference. Not so in Formula E, you can vote for your favourite driver before the race. The three most popular driver’s get a ‘power boost’ for their cars in the last leg of race.

Formula E will drive innovation in electric cars that’ll quickly trickle down to their domestic counterparts. In the not too distant future the wireless charging system the Power Electronics Group showed our visitors could be in parking spots all over the country ready to charge your electric car.

You can find out more about Formula E by watching the video below.

The Rubbish Collection by Joshua Sofaer

In the final post of our series linked to The Rubbish Collection the artist behind the project, Joshua Sofaer, looks back at a truly ambitious exhibition. 

The second phase of The Rubbish Collection is coming to an end. The Head of Exhibitions & Programmes at the Science Museum, Emily Scott-Dearing, asked me how I felt about it all. The truth is that now I just want to get to the end of it and for nothing to have gone wrong. I’m looking forward to looking back and for nobody to have succumbed to any of the long list of potential hazards that we had to consider on our lengthy risk assessment.

Joshua Sofaer in The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

Joshua Sofaer in The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

The project to document and display 30 days’ worth of Science Museum rubbish started several years ago. For the first years, I spent my time trying to convince scientists, curators, managers and pedagogues that it would be a fantastic idea to let members of the public get elbow deep in the museum rubbish before displaying it all in galleries that are normally reserved for precious and unique objects. Once they agreed I suddenly had a panic, as I was forced to seriously consider all the things that could go wrong: “But what if…?”

Volunteers sorting the Museum's rubbish in Phase 1 of The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

Volunteers sorting the Museum’s rubbish in Phase 1 of The Rubbish Collection © Science Museum

Over the 30 days of the first phase with 4 assistants, 30 Science Museum volunteers and the help of over 400 visitors, we collected, laid out and documented all the rubbish produced by the Science Museum’s:
281,647 visitors
500+ staff and contractors
5 cafés
2 building sites
3 shops
2 Science Nights
1 Lates event
…and several storage cupboard clearances.

We had predicted that around 28 tonnes of rubbish would be thrown out but it was actually closer to 33 when we got the figures back from the Science Museum’s main waste contractor Grundon.

We brought over 18 tonnes of materials back to the gallery for the second phase of the exhibition, including:
7.4 tonnes of paper and card reels
2.4 tonnes of bottom ash aggregate
2.3 tonnes of glass sand
1.4 tonnes of wood
1 tonne of fertilizer
698 kilograms of steel
650 litres of dehydrated sewage sludge
291 breezeblocks made from air pollution control residue
…and nearly 1 tonne of various recycled plastics.

7.4 tonnes of paper and card in reels in Phase 2 of The Rubbish Collection © Katherine Leedale

7.4 tonnes of paper and card reels in Phase 2 of The Rubbish Collection © Katherine Leedale

Items that we retained from the rubbish included:
3 fridges
1 dishwasher
3 kettles
3 wheelchairs
1 sleeping bag
1 mini snooker table
16.5 pairs of shoes
2 two-piece suits and ties
1 bra
1 negative pregnancy test
1 love letter
£40.16
…and a crazy amount of disposable cutlery, usable stationery and discarded medicines.

Some of the items retained for Phase 2 of The Rubbish Collection © Katherine Leedale

Some of the items retained for Phase 2 of The Rubbish Collection © Katherine Leedale

Whether disgusted or curious, everyone it would seem, has an opinion about rubbish. We are all throwers away. The psychological desire (and most often the psychological effect) of throwing something away, is to forget about it. We throw something away precisely because we don’t want to think about it any more. I have loved watching the faces of the Science Museum visitors as they realise that they are looking at what we have collectively tried to forget. There are moments of surprise and moments of recognition. Reactions have perhaps been strongest when confronted with the sewage.

The Italian artist Piero Manzoni cleverly played with the reverence that is accorded to the artist and the art object by producing a number of actions that resulted in sculptural provocations. Merda d’Artista (or Artist’s Shit) is what is says on the tin: 30g net freshly preserved, produced and tinned in May 1961. The performance is of the artist’s action that we are asked to imagine: that of him taking a dump. Manzoni places this object on a gallery plinth in a simultaneous act of gross self-aggrandisement and fierce condemnation of the gallery system. By making shit art, Manzoni cleverly manages to critique what he also aspires to (and has subsequently achieved), the reified status of the artist.

In the Science Museum we have on display not just a tin can but a large gallery vitrine full of human waste: 650 litres of dehydrated sewage. This is perhaps the ultimate waste, the stuff we really want to forget. But when our poo is pushed in our faces it asks us to think about what we choose to keep, what we choose to get rid of, and what happens to our stuff once it has left us.

Sludge cakes formed from a month's worth of the Museum's human waste © Glasshopper

Sludge cakes formed from a month’s worth of the Museum’s human waste © Glasshopper

I would like to thank the Science Museum for allowing this to happen. I would like to thank the many waste contractors who have been involved. I would like to thank all the assistants and volunteers who tirelessly sorted through bags of café waste late into the evening after the museum was shut. I would like to thank you, the Science Museum visitors for donning gloves and getting stuck in and also for throwing things out, without which there would have been no project. Only, paradoxically, that would be better: the very thing that this project has relied on – that people throw stuff away – is also the thing we want to reduce. Let’s work towards a time when a project like this is unnecessary or even impossible. Disposal is the last resort.

Continuing our look at climate and sustainability, our Antenna team will be bringing Bio-Bean – recently announced as winner of the Postcode Lottery Green Challenge – to the Museum from next week. The Rubbish Collection continues until Sunday 14 September 2014.

30th Anniversary of DNA Fingerprinting

By Roger Highfield, Director of External Affairs

This fuzzy image, taken on 10 September 1984, launched a revolution; one that sent out shockwaves that can still be felt today. It is the first DNA fingerprint, taken on a Monday morning at the University of Leicester by Alec Jeffreys, now Sir Alec in recognition of his momentous achievement.

The first genetic fingerprint, 1984 © Science Museum / SSPL

The first genetic fingerprint, 1984 © Science Museum / SSPL

The fuzzy pattern that he recorded on an X-ray film was based on genetic material from one of his technicians, Vicky Wilson. At that time, Sir Alec was investigating highly repetitive zones of the human genetic code called “minisatellites”, where there is much variation from person to person. He wanted to study these hotspots of genetic change to find the cause of the DNA diversity that makes every human being on the planet unique.

Gazing at the X-ray film recording Wilson’s minisatellites, he thought to himself: “That’s a mess.”
But then, as he told me, “the penny dropped”. In this mess he stumbled on a kind of fingerprint, one which showed not only which parts of Wilson’s DNA came from her mother and which from her father, but also the unique genetic code that she possessed, one that was shared by no other human being on the planet.

In that Eureka moment, the science of DNA fingerprinting was born.

Sir Alec and his technician made a list of all the possible applications of genetic fingerprinting – but it was his wife, Sue, who spotted the potential for resolving immigration disputes, which in fact proved to be the first application.

An autoradiograph of the first genetic fingerprint, 1984 © Science Museum / SSPL

An autoradiograph of the first genetic fingerprint, 1984 © Science Museum / SSPL

Soon after his discovery, Sir Alec was asked to help confirm the identity of a boy whose family was originally from Ghana. DNA results proved that the boy was indeed a close relation of people already in the UK. The results were so conclusive that the Home Office, after being briefed by the professor, agreed to drop the case and the boy was allowed to stay in the country, to his mother’s immense relief. “Of all the cases,” he recalls, “this is the one that means most to me.’’

Sir Alec is the first to admit that he never realised just how useful his work would turn out to be: in resolving paternity issues, for example, in studies of wildlife populations and, of course, in many criminal investigations (DNA fingerprinting was first used by police to identify the rapist and killer of two teenage girls murdered in Narborough, Leicestershire, in 1983 and in 1986 respectively).

Similar methods were used to establish the identity of the ‘Angel of Death’ Josef Mengele (using bone from the Nazi doctor’s exhumed skeleton), and to identify the remains of Tsar Nicholas II and his family – in the course of which the Duke of Edinburgh gave a blood sample.

Sir Alec told the University recently: “The discovery of DNA fingerprinting was a glorious accident. It was best summarised in a school project that a grandson of mine did years ago: ‘DNA fingerprinting was discovered by my granddad when he was messing about in the lab’. Actually, you can’t describe it better than that – that is exactly what we were doing.”

Sir Alec has long been concerned about the world’s DNA databases. He describes how there needs to be a balance between the state’s rights to investigate and solve crime and an individual’s right to genetic privacy. “I take the very simple view that my genome is my own and nobody may access it unless with my permission.”

As for what happens next, Sir Alec says: ‘I’m now retired and consequently busier than ever.’

A view of the new Science Museum Mathematics Gallery. Credit: Zaha Hadid Architects

Bringing Maths to Life at the Science Museum

Today, we announced an ambitious new mathematics gallery that will open in 2016.

Our new gallery will be designed by the world-renowned Zaha Hadid Architects, who also designed the stunning Aquatics Centre used in the 2012 Olympics in London, and has been made possible by the largest individual donation ever made to the museum, an unprecedented £5 million gift from David and Claudia Harding.

Dame Zaha Hadid, David and Claudia Harding, and Sajid Javid, the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, joined our Director, Ian Blatchford, and the gallery’s curator, David Rooney, to announce the news this morning.

David Harding, Dame Zaha Hadid, the Rt Hon Sajid Javid MP, Ian Blatchford and Claudia Harding (L-R) announcing the new Maths Gallery.

David Harding, Dame Zaha Hadid, the Rt Hon Sajid Javid MP, Ian Blatchford and Claudia Harding (L-R) announcing the new Maths Gallery.

Ian Blatchford, the Science Museum’s Director, explained his ambition was ‘to deliver the world’s foremost gallery of mathematics both in its collection and its design.’ Dame Hadid described how mathematics, in particular the modelling of turbulence around an aircraft, had inspired the design of the new gallery and she recalled her first visit to the Science Museum, aged 10, describing it as ‘extremely fascinating’.

Maths is too often perceived as a dry and complex, but the new gallery will tell stories that place mathematics at the heart of our lives, exploring how mathematicians, their tools and ideas, have helped to shape the modern world.

The stories told in the gallery will span 400 years of science and mathematics, from the Renaissance to the present day, with objects ranging from intriguing hand-held mathematical instruments to a 1929 experimental aircraft.

A view of the new Science Museum Mathematics Gallery featuring the Handley Page aircraft. Credit: Zaha Hadid Architects

A view of the new Science Museum Mathematics Gallery featuring the Handley Page aircraft. Credit: Zaha Hadid Architects

The Handley Page aircraft is one of the star objects – a 1929 British experimental aircraft with a 12m wingspan, which will be suspended from the gallery ceiling. With civilian air travel expanding rapidly in the 1920s, aircraft manufacturers around the world needed a better understanding of the mathematics of aerodynamics and material stress.

This experimental aircraft, made in Britain by Handley Page and building on aerodynamic work carried out during WWI, was designed to take off and land slowly and steeply without stalling, vital at a time when urban airfields were often shrouded in fog.

A plan diagram of the Mathematics Gallery. The gallery layout follows the Handley Page aeroplane's turbulence field. Credit: Zaha Hadid Architects.

A plan diagram of the Mathematics Gallery. The gallery layout follows the Handley Page aeroplane’s turbulence field. Credit: Zaha Hadid Architects.

Welcoming the £5 million donation, our Director Ian Blatchford described it as a “game-changing gift to the museum”. David Harding has a long-standing relationship with the Science Museum, most recently supporting the museum’s Collider exhibition and tour, the new Information Age gallery and our educational work.

The David and Claudia Harding Mathematics Gallery will open in 2016, and will be curated by David Rooney, who also curated our award-winning Codebreaker exhibition about the life of Alan Turing. The gallery is part of the Science Museum’s Masterplan, which will transform around a third of the museum over the next five years.