From Keith Richards to Jordan, books about people’s lives fly off the shelves. But what if they looked like this….?
Created from the Human Genome Project, these replica books (a printed version can be seen at the Wellcome Collection) show the sequence of 3 billion bases of DNA contained within a human cell.
Who did this?
Beginning in 1990, the Human Genome project, coordinated by the U.S Department of Energy and the national institutes of health, intended to identify human genes, develop understanding of genetic diseases and highlight key developmental processes of the human body. Whilst initial analysis was released in 2001, the final sequence was completed in 2003.
What exactly were they looking at?
They were looking at the biological data which makes us unique; the things which make us, us.
Sounds simple. What about the Science?
Ok. To start with, a genome is all in the DNA in an organism, including its genes which carry information for making proteins.
DNA is composed of four letters carrying instructions for making an organism – A, C G AND T. Three of these letters together create an Amino Acid. These combinations make up 20 different amino acids and come in a vast number of different orders to create proteins from keratin to haemoglobin.
The human genome is made up of 3 billion bases of DNA, split into 24 chromosomes. Each chromosomes contains a selection of genes – the human genome contains about 20,000 – 25,000 genes.
Ah, so that’s all the letters?
Exactly. This information can be used to develop new ways to diagnose, treat and someday prevent diseases. Scientists also studied the genetic makeup of non-human organisms including e.coli, the fruit fly and a laboratory mouse.
Sounds useful, if not a bit sci-fi.
Yes and, as with much boundary-pushing scientific research, this can lead to opposition and criticism. This was the first large scientific undertaking to address potential ethical, legal and social issues around data. You might want to think about:
- Who should have access to this information?
- How much should people intervene with genetics material?
- How could this information be used?
- Could it be used for financial benefits?
After all that, fancy some beach reading?
The Human Genome book is in the Who Am I? Gallery: first floor, Wellcome Wing.